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Beitzah 21

BEITZAH 21 & 22 - have been dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, NBG'M (3 Tamuz), by one of his Chasidim.

1) [line 9] ORVA PARACH - (a) "There is a raven flying." (Rav Huna said this to change the subject because he did not want to answer the question of Rav Ivya Saba) (RASHI); (b) ["This is a question of fools or young boys who race] ravens in flight." (Rav Huna's retort was a calculated ploy to deflect the question -- see below, #3b) (RABEINU CHANANEL)

2) [line 10] D'MISHTABE'ACH LEI MAR B'GAVEI - who you, my master (Rav Huna), praised [as a great person/Talmid Chacham (i.e. Rav Ivya Saba)]

3) [line 12] ANI HAYOM "SAMECHUNI BA'ASHISHOS, RAPEDUNI BA'TAPUCHIM" - (a) To me, today, the words of the verse (Shir ha'Shirim 2:5) apply: "Sustain me with glass flagons of wine (or dainty cakes), spread out apples around me," [because I need to eat since I am exhausted after the effort of giving the Derashah. Therefore, I am unable to delve into his question at the present time.] (RASHI); (b) "Today, I have been elected as the Rosh Yeshiva ("Samechuni," from the word Semichah, refers to Rabbinic ordination. Allegorically, "Ashishos" are the strong, well-founded Halachos; "Tapuchim" are the Agados which are fragrant like apples -- Maseches Sofrim 16:4); I could have answered his question, but my answer would then have been open for debate. As a result, on the first day of my election as Rosh Yeshiva, my authority would have been challenged." (RABEINU CHANANEL)

4) [line 23] L'MIFLEGAH - to divide it in two
5) [line 24] ISAS KELAVIM - (a) a loaf of bread that is made from flour mixed with a lot of bran that is fed to dogs (BARTENURA Chalah 1:8, based upon the opinion of Reish Lakish in Yerushalmi Chalah 1:5); (b) a loaf of bread - even superior white bread - made with the intention that dogs eat it (TUR YD 330, citing the RAMBAN, based upon the opinion of Rebbi Ba b'Shem Shmuel in Yerushalmi ibid.)

6) [line 26] CHALAH
Whenever a person kneads a dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen, as specified in Bamidbar 15:17-21. This portion is called Chalah. The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to a dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of flour (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). An amount about half that much requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah. A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24.

(a) THE TORAH LAW - According to Torah law, in a courtyard (Chatzer) that has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separately owned Reshus ha'Yachid and the Chatzer is a jointly owned Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.
(b) ERUV CHATZEIROS - King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden unless an *Eruv Chatzeiros* (lit. a mixing of the courtyard, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6; or fraternization of the courtyard, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a city is called a *Shituf Mavo'os*. This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf, in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. Through this act, they can be considered one Reshus again. (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)

9) [line 38] BENEI BAGA - villagers
10) [line 38] D'RAMU ALAIHU KIMCHA DI'VENEI CHEILA - that are responsible for the food of the soldiers

11) [line 43] HA'TIMNI - from Timnas/Timnah, identified with the village Tibnah, located on the road between Beit Shemesh and Yavneh. At the time of Bayis Sheni it was the major city of the district.

12) [line 46] BALESHES - marauding troops who come to pillage


13) [line 9] SUFLEI - date pits
14) [line 9] L'CHEIVASA - [that are given] to animals [as food]
15) [line 11] L'HASAKAH - for use as firewood [for cooking and baking]
16a) [line 11] YEVEISHTA - dry ones
b) [line 11] RETIVTA - moist ones
17) [line 14] AGAV RIFTA - together with bread

18a) [line 20] SHIYUREI CHOSOS - the wine left in their cups [that is forbidden because of Stam Yeinam]

(a) Wine that was poured as an idolatrous libation is called "Yayin Nesech" and is Asur b'Hana'ah. This is derived from the verse in Ha'azinu (Devarim 32:38), "Asher Chelev *Zevacheimo* Yochelu, Yishtu *Yein Nesicham*," that compares wine of libation to an animal that was offered to Avodah Zarah.
(b) The Chachamim forbade the wine of a non-Jew that was *not* poured as a libation ("Stam Yeinam") out of fear that drinking wine together would lead to intermarriage. In order to avoid confusion between Yayin Nesech and Stam Yeinam, the Chachamim made Stam Yeinam also Asur b'Hana'ah. Although this is only an Isur mid'Rabanan, it is a very serious prohibition (see Chochmas Adam 75:1).

19) [line 22] AGAV KASA - together with and because of the cup
20) [line 23] KANONA AGAV KITMA - a fire pan because of its (usable) ashes

21) [line 26] GERAF SHEL RE'I (A pan of refuse)
(a) The Rabanan enacted a prohibition of Muktzah against handling certain types of objects on Shabbos (the extent of this prohibition is the subject of an argument between Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon; see Shabbos 45a and other places, and Insights to Beitzah, Introduction to Muktzah).
(b) However, when an item of Muktzah that is disgusting is resting in a place where people would like to sit and they find it very unpleasant to sit near such a disgusting item, the Rabanan permitted the item to be removed, due to the honor of Shabbos which the item would otherwise be diminishing. For example, a pan of human or animal refuse, or a dead mouse, even though it is Muktzah, may be removed.
(c) It is not permitted to place a disgusting item in a place where people will want to sit, with the intention to move it later when people sit there and are disgusted by it. For example, while eating dates, one may not pile up the date pits in one place at the table in order to permit moving the pits when the pile becomes disgusting to those who want to sit there.

22) [line 27] ADBEREI - led; took on a walk
23) [line 37] EIN ZOKFIN ES HA'MENORAH - it is prohibited to stand a lamp upright (the Gemara (Daf 22a) explains that the Mishnah is referring to a lamp made of segments that fell and came apart)

24) [line 37] PITIN GERITZIN - thick loaves of bread
25) [line 38] REKIKIN - thin, flat loaves of bread
26) [line 40] CHARARIN - flat cakes baked on coals
27) [line 43] KEDEI CHAYAV - the basic necessities to stay alive

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