BACKGROUND ON THE DAILY DAF
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1) [line 1] SHIR - the various songs of Tehilim that are recited each day in
the Beis ha'Mikdash by the Leviyim. See Insights to Sukah 55:1
2) [line 14] KOL DAVAR SHEB'MINYAN, TZARICH MINYAN ACHER L'HATIRO (Any law
that was enacted by a group of Sages requires another group of Sages in
order to rescind it)
(a) When a Jewish Supreme Court enacts a decree or issues an edict or
institutes a custom that becomes widespread among Benei Yisrael, it becomes
law. Another court cannot rescind those laws or customs unless they are
greater than the first court in wisdom and there are more true Torah-sages
in the generation. (The term "Minyan" refers to the number of true Torah-
sages in the generation, since all courts consist of seventy-one judges.)
(RAMBAM Hilchos Mamrim 2:2)
(b) Even if the reason for the original decree or edict no longer exists,
the second court cannot undo the laws. There are some who rule that in this
case as well the second court must be greater than the first (RAMBAM ibid.).
Others rule that if the reason no longer exists, a *greater* court is not
necessary (RA'AVAD ibid.).
(c) Some Rishonim rule that even if the decree was issued with a time limit,
or was specifically limited to the time that a certain situation (that was
the cause of the decree) lasts, still it is necessary for another court to
annul it (RASHI, in his original opinion, cited by TOSFOS DH Kol Davar).
However, according to most of the Rishonim, these cases do not need another
court to overrule them. They automatically expire after the set time or when
the situation ceases to exist. Only when a decree was enacted without a time
limit and without a reason for the decree, is it necessary for another court
to annul it (TOSFOS ibid. and 5b DH Michdei).
3) [line 17] "BI'MSHOCH HA'YOVEL, HEMAH YA'ALU VA'HAR" - "upon an extended
blast of the Shofar (after the giving of the Torah), they may ascend the
mountain" (Shemos 19:13)
4) [line 18] KEREM REVA'I
(a) In the first three years after a tree is planted, its fruits are called
Orlah and are Asurim b'Hana'ah, as it states in Vayikra 19:23. The fruits of
the fourth year are called Neta Reva'i and are Kodesh (holy) (ibid. 19:24).
They must be brought to and eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim. Alternatively,
the fruits may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem
them is brought to Yerushalayim. The food that is bought with this money is
Kodesh like Neta Reva'i and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim.
(b) The Gemara records an argument as to whether the laws of Neta Reva'i
apply to all fruits or only to grapes (Kerem Reva'i). The Halachah in Eretz
Yisrael follows the opinion that the laws of Neta Reva'i apply to all fruits
(SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 294:6).
(c) With regard to fruits that grew outside of Eretz Yisrael, there are
three opinions: 1. RABEINU YONAH to Berachos 35a, quoting RI HA'ZAKEN,
states that they have the same Halachah as fruits in Eretz Yisrael, and
require Pidyon; 2. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:15) rules that
they do not require Pidyon; 3. GE'ONIM, TOSFOS Berachos 35a DH u'Leman and
ROSH to Berachos 35a explain that the rule, "the Halachah in Chutz la'Aretz
follows the opinion of those who hold the lenient opinion in Eretz Yisrael"
applies to Neta Reva'i. The lenient opinion is Kerem Reva'i, where the laws
of Kedushah and Pidyon apply only to grapes. Accordingly, only fourth-year
*grapes* need Pidyon.
(d) The SHACH (Yoreh De'ah 294:17) concludes that *all* fourth-year fruits
of Chutz la'Aretz should be redeemed without a Berachah in Chutz la'Aretz.
The Vilna Ga'on (ibid. 294:28) rules like the third opinion, 3., in which
case only grapes need Pidyon in Chutz la'Aretz, and a Berachah is recited on
5) [line 19] (ALAS MIN HA'TZAFON) [AYELES MIN HA'DAROM] - Ayeles from the
south. This town is one day's journey from Yerushalayim
6) [line 20] (AKRABAS MIN HA'DAROM) [AKRABAS MIN HA'TZAFON] - Akrabas from
the north. There was an district named Akrabah in the Shomron, south of
Shechem (See Atlas Da'as Mikra, Mosad ha'Rav Kook, 1993, page 320 and
Dikdukei Sofrim #300)
7) [line 20] LOD - the town of Lod, located in the present day city by that
8) [line 23] L'ATER - to adorn, wreath
9) [last line] KEFAR TAVI - a village next to Lod
10) [line 8] MITZVAS ONAH - the obligation of a husband with regard to
11) [line 21] BEI KELUCHIS - the name of a place