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Beitzah 4

1) [line 1] RO'IN ES HA'ELYONOS K'ILU HEN PERUDOS - we consider the figs that are on top of the Igulim (the utensils) as detached and mixed with the rest of the figs in the Igulim

2) [line 2] VEHA'TACHTONOS MA'ALOS ES HA'ELYONOS - and the figs at the bottom of the Igulim (that are Chulin) cause the figs at the top (that are Terumah) to be permitted because there are more than one hundred parts of permitted figs in the mixture

3a) [line 3] PUMIN - the tops (lit. mouths) of utensils that are filled with figs, i.e. the mixture will be permitted only if there are one hundred utensils of figs that are Chulin besides the utensil into which the figs of Terumah were pressed
b) [line 4] SHULAYIM - the [figs at the] bottom of the utensil

See Background to Beitzah 3:7

5) [line 21] AGAV IMEI - by virtue of its mother; i.e. if the chicken is eaten, then the egg can also be eaten

6) [line 24] GUZMA KETANI - an overstatement, more than was necessary to say; Acheirim in the name of Rebbi Eliezer wanted to emphasize that the egg is permitted, so they said that hen may be eaten along with the egg

7) [line 26] EFRO'ACH - a chick

(a) There are three situations in which two days of Isur Melachah may follow each other: (1) In the Diaspora, two days of Yom Tov Shel Galuyos (2) Two days of Yom Tov of Rosh Hashanah (even in Eretz Yisrael) (3) When Shabbos precedes or follows Yom Tov. In the above-mentioned situations, the Tana'im and Amora'im (in Beitzah 4a; Eruvin 38b, Pesachim 47b, and elsewhere) argue as two whether the two days are viewed as one long day (Kedushah Achas) or as independent entities (Shtei Kedushos). In cases (1) and (2) (two days of Yom Tov), independent entities means that one of the two days is judged a weekday, and one is judged a day of Yom Tov (although we do not necessarily know which of the two is the weekday and which is the Yom Tov). In case (3), when Shabbos is adjacent to Yom Tov, independent entities means that although both are certainly Kodesh, the status a person has during the one may change with the start of the other, as we shall now explain.

(b) There are two practical differences between the options of Kedushah Achas and Shtei Kedushos:

1. If an object becomes available to use or eat during the first day of two days Yom Tov, thereby attaining the status of Muktzah (since it was not available for use or consumption before Yom Tov. Examples of this are an egg laid on Yom Tov, an animal from the wild that is caught on Yom Tov, or a plant or fruit that became detached on Yom Tov. If the two days are viewed as one long day, then the object remains Muktzah for both days; if they are viewed as two separate days, it becomes permitted on the second day, since either the first of the two days or the second is a weekday, and in either case the object would lose its Muktzah status on the second day. (This only applies to cases (1) and (2), two consecutive days of Yom Tov, but not to case (3), Shabbos adjacent to Yom Tov, since in that case both days are *certainly* Kodesh, as discussed above (a).)
2. If a person makes an Eruv Techumim on the first day, making the place of the Eruv his "Shevisah," or "home base" for the first day, and permitting him to walk 2,000 Amos from the place of his Eruv (rather than from the place in which he is standing at the beginning of Bein ha'Shemashos). If the two days are viewed as one long day, he may not make a new Eruv, in another place, on the second day. (Likewise, if his Eruv is moved or removed before the start of the second day, his Shevisah nevertheless remains in the same place for the second day.) If the days are viewed as two separate days, he may make another Eruv, elsewhere, for the second day. (Likewise, if his Eruv is moved or removed before the start of the second day, his Shevisah reverts to the new place of his Eruv, or to the place where he is Bein ha'Shemashos, on the second day.) This applies even in case (3), when Shabbos is adjacent to Yom Tov.
(c) The Halachic status of cases (1), (2) and (3) are not necessarily related to each other. One may be considered Kedushah Achas, while the others are Shtei Kedushos, and vice versa. There is more reason, though, for Rosh Hashanah to be considered two Kedushos than for two days of Yom Tov to be considered two Kedushos (see Beitzah 4b; 5b).

9) [line 34] HACHANAH D'RABAH
See Background to Beitzah 2:15

10) [line 38] L'ATVINHU - to roast them
11) [line 40] L'GOM'AH - to swallow it raw
12) [line 44] V'SA - and come back

13) [last line] AMORA - (a) a Meturgeman, the one who repeats in a loud voice the words of the Chacham, who whispers the Shiyur in a low voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) a Meturgeman, the one who translates the words of the Chacham, who delivers the Shi'ur in a low voice *in Hebrew* (RASHI to Yoma 20b)


14) [line 1] IKU HASHTA ISHTELA'I - had I told you the Halachah right away, I would have forgotten [a crucial ruling and erred as a result]

(a) When a forbidden object is mixed with a permitted object, and most of the mixture is permitted, the entire mixture is permitted to be eaten mid'Oraisa, and in many circumstances is not even prohibited to be eaten mid'Rabanan (see above, Daf 3:7:a for details)
(b) This applies only if the prohibited object was inadvertently mixed into the permitted objects. It is prohibited to mix the two l'Chatchilah, and if one does so the mixture remains prohibited, mid'Rabanan (and according to some, even mid'Oraisa)
(c) There are cetain exceptions to this rule, as our Sugya suggests.

16) [line 21] MIKLA KALI ISURA - at the time that one derives benefit from the prohibited items, they are already burned

17) [line 26] YAD'INAN BI'KEVI'A D'YARCHA - we know the fixed regulation of the lunar calendar

18) [line 27] MASI'IN MASU'OS - messengers lifted lighted torches on the peaks of mountains between Yerushalayim and Bavel to notify Benei Yisrael of the proclamation of the new month

19) [line 28] MISHE'KILKELU HA'KUSIM - after the Kusim sabotaged this arrangement by lighting fires even when the new month had not been proclaimed

20) [line 31] V'ASI L'AKALKULEI - and the people might [make a mistake regarding the day of the month and] sin [as a result; e.g. eating Chametz on Pesach]

21) [last line] EDUS HA'CHODESH
(a) The Hebrew calendar month, that determines the Jewish holidays, begins with each new revolution of the moon, at the point after it wanes completely and begins to wax anew.
(b) When the Sanhedrin of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish "Supreme Court") convened in Eretz Yisrael, the new month was fixed and sanctified according to the testimony of witnesses. A person who sees the moon (as it begins to grow and is just visible) traveled to the Sanhedrin, or to a Beis Din appointed by the Sanhedrin, to testify. The place where the Beis Din convened to accept testimony was known as the Beis ha'Va'ad. Beis Din cross- examined the witnesses there, and when they were convinced of the accuracy of the testimonies, they announced the beginning of the new month.
(c) Today, mathematical calculations are used to determine the beginning of the new month. According to RAMBAM (Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 5:2) it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai to determine the beginning of the month mathematically when there is no Sanhedrin, and through testimony when there is one.

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