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Previous daf Bechoros 30
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon
Kodshim and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section
is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in the
Gemara and Rashi)
 Gemara 30a [line 4]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #3
 Rashi 30a DH l'Olam k'Rebbi Shimon:
The words "uv'Isura Gufei" mark the beginning of a new Dibur
 Gemara 30b [line 3]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #2
 Ein Mishpat #1:
The words "Siman 119: Se'if 4"
should be "Siman 119: Se'if 7"
1) [line 1] TARBA D'ATMA B'MAR D'KANTA - [he was suspected of selling] the
prohibited Chelev of the kidneys that lies upon the thighs as if it is the
2) [line 2] AMGUZEI - nuts
3) [line 5] STAM DARDEKEI GARU B'AMGUZEI - average kids are enticed by nuts
4) [line 5] V'AZIL U'MESHABEISH LI'VENEI TABACHEI - and he misleads the sons
of the other butchers
5) [line 6] V'GARI LEHU B'AMGUZEI - and he entices them with nuts
6) [line 8] HE'CHASHUD AL HA'SHEVI'IS - one who is suspect to sell produce
grown in Shemitah (SHEVI'IS)
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every
seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during
the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that: 1. they must be
considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that
he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal
fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits
of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of
eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case
of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal
(b) One may not do any work with the land or with trees growing from the
land that makes improvements.
(c) When one sells fruit of Shevi'is, the Kedushah of the fruit is
transferred to the money paid in exchange for it (the fruit itself remains
Kadosh as well).
(d) The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m
for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six
years in which they work their own fields.
7) [line 9] EINO CHASHUD AL HA'MA'ASROS - is not suspect to sell Tevel
(produce from which tithes were not taken) as if the tithes were taken
(RASHI); to sell Ma'aser Sheni as if it is Chulin (regular produce) (TOSFOS)
(TERUMOS / MA'ASROS - see Background to Bechoros 11:14)
8) [line 29] REBBI AKIVA SETIMTA'AH - Rebbi Akiva, the unnamed authority;
i.e. Rebbi recorded many Mishnayos that follow the opinion of Rebbi Akiva
without quoting his name
9) [line 33] DAYARA BAR DAYARTA - "you convert, son of a converted woman"
10) [line 4] DIVREI CHAVEIRUS - matters kept by Chaverim (those who observe
the laws properly)
(a) A Chaver is one who is meticulous in his observance of Halachah. A
person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things: 1. never
to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz; 2. never to prepare Taharos
in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz; 3. to always eat Chulin b'Taharah; 4. to
take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta Demai
2:2-3). The Gemara here explains exactly how one goes about accepting this
(b) If an Am ha'Aretz attempted to become a Chaver, but then returned to his
old ways, he becomes disqualified from becoming a Chaver forever. (See
RASHI, TOSFOS, and RITVA.)
11) [line 14] DIKDUK ECHAD - one particular law
12a) [line 15] DIVREI LEVIYAH - matters pertaining to the responsibilities
of the Leviyim
The Leviyim would guard the Mikdash, open and lock its gates, and sing to
HaSh-m on the Duchan (the platform with three steps that was hewn into the
stone floor of the Azarah; see Background to Sotah 48:6) when any obligatory
public Olah offering (and the Shelamim offering of Shavu'os) were offered.
They would also accompany the singing with musical instruments. Rashi
(Erchin 13b) adds that they would also clean the Azarah.
b) [line 15] DIVREI KEHUNAH - matters pertaining to the service of the
Kohanim in the Beis ha'Mikdash, or to or the priestly gifts
*13*) [line 19] MEKABLIN LI'CHENAFAYIM - we accept a person as a "partial
Chaver" if he affirms that he will always wash Netilas Yadayim to make his
hands Tahor before eating Chulin or Terumah. (The Rabanan decreed that hands
are always considered to be Tamei unless they are washed.)
*14*) [line 20] EINI MEKABEL ELA LI'CHENAFAYIM - "I will only eat Chulin
b'Taharah in the sense that I will wash Netilas Yadayim before I eat it."
15a) [line 22] L'MASHKIN - The Chachamim decreed that all liquids of an Am
ha'Aretz (i.e. one who usually eats food that is Tamei) should be considered
by Perushim (i.e. those who usually eat their food in a state of Teharah) to
be Tamei. We accept an Am ha'Aretz's liquids to be Tahor if he conducts
himself like a Chaver for 30 days.
b) [line 22] LI'CHESUS - The Chachamim decreed that all clothes of an Am
ha'Aretz should be considered by Perushim to be Tamei with Tum'as Midras. We
accept an Am ha'Aretz's clothes to be Tahor if he conducts himself like a
Chaver for 12 months. (TUM'AS MIDRAS)
(a) A Zav (see Background to Zevachim 23:8a) can cause objects (other than
Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that are *under* him to become Avos
ha'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras
(lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav
ha'Zav (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav). An object that is under him becomes a
Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or the
Zav himself gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is
wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is
touching at the time.
(c) Utensils or clothes that lie *above* the Zav also get the status of a
Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the
*Elyon* of a Zav.
(d) The Chachamim decreed that the clothes of an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned
person who usually eats food that is Tamei) are considered by the Perushim
(lit. separatists, exceptionally righteous people who usually eat their food
b'Taharah) to be Tamei Midras.
16) [line 33] NISHNEIS MISHNAH ZO - this Mishnah (that a Talmid Chacham must
accept Divrei Chaveirus) was taught
17) [line 35] EZILU IMRU LEI L'AYEIN BAH - go tell him to look into the
matter (with regard to what the Halachah is)
18) [line 35] OSIV RABANAN MI'DIDEI L'GABAIHU - he placed some of his
Talmidim near them to watch the Taharos
19) [line 38] KEVOD ZAKEN - the honor of a Talmid Chacham
20) [line 39] SILSUL - dignity
21) [line 40] CHATZER SHE'MOCHRIN BAH TECHELES - a courtyard in which wool
dyed with Techeles is sold. Techeles, the greenish blue wool used for
Tzitzis (see Insights to Menachos 44:1 for a discussion of the identity of
the Techeles) is very expensive, and it was therefore often forged by using
Kala Ilan (indigo, from which a cheap Techeles imitation was produced) in
place of Techeles.
22) [line 47] KOMA'AS - she was binding
23) [last line] KISHREI MOCHES - the seals or written receipts of a tax-