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Bechoros 16

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon
Kodshim and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section
is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in the
Gemara and Rashi)

[1] Gemara 16a [line 43]:
From the words of Rabeinu Gershom it can be learned that
the words "*d'Avad* *Ikri* v'Achal"
should be "*d'Avar* *Ikriv* v'Achal"

[2] Rashi 16b DH Veladoseihen:
The words "v'Shaicha b'Dor *Acher* Tefei"
should be "v'Shaicha b'Dor *Echad* Tefei"
(as they appear in the Bartenurah)

1) [line 12] DOKIN SHEBA'AYIN - (lit. eye's web, O.F. teile) refers to a thin film (cataract?) that develops due to an eye-disease, which is considered to be a blemish, or, alternatively, a cut on the eyelids, that disqualifies an animal from being brought as a Korban, as the Torah states in Vayikra 21:20. See Background to Menachos 78:38 with regard to blemishes that invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice.

2) [line 20] BECHOR U'MA'ASER
(a) A Bechor without a Mum is brought as a Korban by the Kohen to whom it was given. It may only be eaten by Kohanim. If it has a Mum, the Kohen slaughters it and eats it himself. He may share it with anyone (see Mishnah, Bechoros 32b).
(b) Ma'aser Behemah without a Mum is brought by its owner as a Korban, the meat of which is eaten by the owner himself. If it has a Mum, the owner slaughters and eats it outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

*3*) [line 29] V'HA LO ALIMA L'MITPAS PIDYONAH - and this one ("v'Ha") does not have enough Kedushah to take hold on the object with which it is redeemed! (Therefore, its own Kedushah remains intact. This is not a question but a statement.)

There are five Chata'os that are put to death by being locked up without food until they die:

  1. The offspring of a Chatas
  2. The Temurah (see Background to Bechoros 14:5) of a Chatas
  3. A Chatas the owner of which has died
  4. A Chatas of a sheep or goat that became a year old (and is therefore invalid as a Korban Chatas), the owner of which brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins
  5. A Chatas that was lost and was later found with a Mum, the owner of which brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins (Temurah 21b)
5) [line 38] KOL SHEB'CHATAS MESAH, B'ASHAM RO'AH - an Asham which is in one of the above five categories grazes until it develops a Mum, after which it is redeemed. Its value is used to purchase an Olas Nedavah for the Tzibur

6) [line 42] HEICHA D'AVAD (D'AVAR) IKRI (IKRIV) V'ACHAL - where it happened that he ate [from it]; alt. Girsa: where he transgressed and offered it [as a Korban] and ate [from it]

7) [last line] TZON BARZEL - lit. iron sheep, i.e. sheep that retain their value.
The Nochri sold his sheep to a Jew with the condition that he would pay him after a period of ten years. They also agreed that all the offspring born during that period would be divided between them.


8) [line 4] SHE'ACHRAYUSAN LA'OVED KOCHAVIM - they are collateral for the Nochri
9) [line 7] D'CHEIVAN D'LO NAKAT MARA ZUZEI, BI'RESHUSA D'MARA KAIMEI - since the owner did not receive money for them, they remain in the owner's possession

10) [line 11] D'KABIL ALEI ONSA V'ZOLA - the Nochri accepted upon himself any loss due to accidents and devaluation

11) [line 14] MAI PASKA? - Why did the Tana write it without qualification?
*12*) [line 25] AMAR RAV HUNA "VELADOS PETURIM" - in the *first* case of the Mishnah, when the Jew did *not* specify that the Nochri could take the offspring in lieu of their mother, only the first generation of offspring are exempt from Bechorah

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