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Bechoros 9

BECHOROS 7-10 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon
Kodshim and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section
is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in the
Gemara and Rashi)

[1] Gemara 9a [line 7]:
"Aisinhu Maya"

[2] Gemara 9b [line 16]:
The words "Kesef Tzuri"
should be "Kesef Tzura"
as it appears in Rabeinu Gershom

[3] Gemara 9b [line 14]:
The words "b'Shavyo Lo ka'Amar" should be "b'Shavyo Lo ka'Amrinan"

[4] Rashi 9b DH she'Pidyono Mutar:
The words "b'Lo Shum Hakravah" are the end of the Dibur; the words "v'Hu
Asur" are a Dibur ha'Maschil

1) [line 1] KI MATI L'VEI BELI'EI - when he came to Bei Beli'ei, the name of a place (TOSFOS), or a maelstrom (RASHI), the waters of which swallow up all other waters which enter it

2) [line 1] MILEI KUZA D'MAYA - he filled an earthen cup with water
3) [line 3] ME'ANEI - humbled, worn out
4) [line 4] AKSHU B'APEI MALKA - they acted haughtily in the king's presence
5) [line 6] TIGDA - vessel, cask
6) [line 7] V'SHADU BEI KAMA'EI KAMA'EI U'VALA LEHU - as they poured water into it, the water was swallowed up by the waters of Bei Beli'ei

7) [line 8] D'SHAMIT KASFAYHU - their shoulders fell out of place
8) [line 8] U'VALU LEHU V'AZUL - and they wasted away (and died)
9) [line 20] DIR - stable yard

10) [line 20] NICHNAS L'DIR L'HISASER - the lamb with which he redeemed the Peter Chamor enters the stable yard in order for Ma'aser Behemah to be taken (MA'ASER BEHEMAH)
(a) Every year, a person must collect all of the Kosher animals that were born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one as Ma'aser Behemah. The Mitzvah of Ma'aser Behemah is stated in Vayikra (27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shavet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m." - "And all of the herds and flocks shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod, every tenth one being consecrated to HaSh-m."
(b) Ma'aser Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (blemish or defect), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it anywhere.

11) [line 23] EFSHAR L'TZAMTZEM - it is possible that both babies were born simultaneously, and thus both are firstborns (EFSHAR L'TZAMTZEM)
The Tana'im argue as to whether it is possible for natural (i.e. not intentionally planned) events to occur simultaneously or not. For example, Rebbi Yosi rules that it is possible for the two witnesses to voice their denial of knowledge of evidence simultaneously; while the Rabanan argue (Shevuos 32a).


12) [line 13] PARIK LEI B'SHILKEI B'SHAVYO - redeemed them with thoroughly boiled herbs which were worth the value of the Peter Chamor

13) [line 16] B'CHESEF (TZURI) [TZURAH] - with minted coins
14) [line 37] "SHOR*ECHA*" V'"TZON*ECHA*" LAMAH LI? - why does the verse say "*your* ox" and *your* [flock of] sheep"? (Devarim 15:19)

15) [line 39] EGLAH ARUFAH
The Tana'im argue as to whether it is possible for natural (i.e. not intentionally planned) events to occur simultaneously or not. For example, Rebbi Yosi rules that it is possible for the two witnesses to voice their denial of knowledge of evidence simultaneously while the Rabanan argue (Shevuos 32a).
(a) If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Eretz Yisrael) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1). The procedure is as follows:
(b) Five elders (according to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, which is the Halachah) of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court) measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.
(c) The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked (see Background to Bava Metzia 30:12:b) to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI). They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe. This calf is the "Eglah Arufah" and becomes Asur b'Hana'ah.
(d) The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people, Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).
(e) The calf that is used as the Eglah Arufah must be fully healthy and cannot be a Tereifah, as the Gemara derives from the verse (Devarim 21:6; see TOSFOS DH ha'Arufah). (See next entry.)

16) [line 40] SHOR HA'NISKAL
(a) The term Shor ha'Niskal refers to any animal or bird that is stoned to death by Beis Din. Such an animal is Asur b'Hana'ah after the death sentence is issued. One of the instances of Shor ha'Niskal is an animal that killed a person, as described in Shemos 21:28-31.
(b) In the event that an animal killed a person, only if two witnesses saw the act is the animal stoned by Beis Din and Asur b'Hana'ah. If only one witness saw it, or if there were no witnesses but the owner told Beis Din of the incident, the animal is not stoned and is Mutar b'Hana'ah. If it is an animal that is fit to be brought as a Korban, it is Mutar b'Hana'ah but is unfit to be brought as a Korban.

17) [line 40] TZIPOREI METZORA
(a) THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two Kosher birds (*Tziporei Metzora*), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a new clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.
(b) The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He then counts seven days (Yemei Sefiro), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is then completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Shevuos 11:7). (For a description of the Korbanos that a Metzora brings on the eighth day, see Background to Kidushin 35:24c-e.)

18) [line 44] OCHEL SHE'ATAH YACHOL L'HA'ACHILO L'ACHERIM - food that you are permitted to feed to a non-Jew (which excludes everything that is Asur be'Hana'ah since, although the non-Jew may eat it of his own accord, it may not be *fed* to a non-Jew)

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