POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Bava Basra 23
BAVA BASRA 20-25 - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann of Lawrence,
N.Y., out of love for the Torah and for those who study it.
1) CHAZAKAH FOR DAMAGE
(a) Rav Yosef had small date trees; bloodletters sat under
them. Ravens came to eat the blood of their vessels, and
perched on the trees, and damaged the dates.
2) PREVENTING DAMAGE OF BIRDS
1. Rav Yosef: The bloodletters must leave!
2. Abaye: But it is only Grama!
3. Rav Yosef: Rav Tuvi taught that Grama of damage is
4. Abaye: But they are Muchzak to sit there!
5. Rav Yosef: Rav Nachman taught, there is no Chazakah
for something which damages.
6. Abaye: But Rav Mari taught, that refers to smoke,
and Rav Zevid taught, it refers to a Beis ha'Kisei
(a place used as a bathroom) (but not other things)!
7. Rav Yosef: I am very sensitive, the ravens bother me
like smoke and a Beis ha'Kisei.
(a) (Mishnah): One must distance a dovecote 50 Amos from a
3) CHAZAKAH OF THINGS THAT MAY DAMAGE
(b) One may not make a dovecote in his property unless he
owns 50 Amos around it in every direction;
(c) R. Yehudah says, he must own (the area in which one
seeds) four Korim, this is as far as birds fly.
1. If one bought a dovecote, even if it is very close
to neighbors, he is Muchzak (and may keep it).
(d) (Gemara) Question: Is 50 Amos enough?!
1. Contradiction (Mishnah): We may not set traps for
doves within four Mil of a settled area.
(e) Answer (Abaye): They can fly further, but they eat their
fill within 50 Amos.
(f) Question: Can they only fly four Mil?!
1. Contradiction (Beraisa): In a settled area, one may
not set traps within 100 Mil!
(g) Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): That is when vineyards are in
between (it flies from vineyard to vineyard).
(h) Answer #2 (Rava): That is when other dovecotes are in
1. Question: If so, one may not spread traps on account
of the other dovecotes!
2. Answers: The trapper owns the other dovecotes, or a
Nochri, or they are Hefker.
(a) (Mishnah): R. Yehudah... (If one bought a dovecote, even
if it is very close to neighbors, he is Muchzak).
(b) (Rav Papa): This teaches that we suggest claims on behalf
of buyers and heirs.
(c) Question: A Mishnah explicitly teaches that we argue on
behalf of heirs!
1. (Mishnah): An heir does not need to explain how the
one he inherited received the property.
(d) Answer: Rav Papa had to teach about buyers.
(e) Question: A Mishnah also explicitly teaches that we argue
on behalf of buyers!
1. (Mishnah): If one bought a Chatzer with ledges
sticking out (over the public domain) he is Muchzak
(that he is entitled to them).
(f) Answer: We must teach both cases.
1. If we only taught that case, one might have thought
there we argue for a buyer, perhaps the area under
them was really part of the Chatzer, or the public
allowed the previous owner to build them;
(g) (Mishnah): He is Muchzak.
i. But we would not argue for one who buys a
2. If we only taught about a dovecote, one might have
thought that the previous owner appeased the
neighbor, or the neighbor allowed him;
i. But we would not assume that one appeased or
obtained pardon from the public!
(h) Question: But Rav Nachman taught, there is no Chazakah
(i) Answer #1 (Rav Mari): Rav Nachman refers to damage of
(j) Answer #2 (Rav Zvid): He refers to a Beis ha'Kisei.
4) CHICKS THAT ARE FOUND
(a) (Mishnah): A chick found within 50 Amos of Reuven's
dovecote belongs to Reuven;
1. If it is more than 50 Amos away, the finder keeps
(b) If it is found between two dovecotes, it belongs to the
owner of the closer one;
1. If it is exactly in the middle, they divide it.
(c) (Gemara - R. Chanina): When in doubt about where
something came from, we assume it came from the majority,
even if the minority is closer.
1. Even though following the majority and attributing
to the closest source are both mid'Oraisa, the
majority is stronger.
(d) Question (R. Zeira): "(Rav Kahana):'"Ha'Ir ha'Kerovah" -
we attribute (an unknown murderer) to the closest city,
even though other cities have more people!
(e) Answer: No, the Torah only selects the closest city when
the populations are equal.
(f) Question: If we follow the majority, we should assume
that the murderer came from the rest of the world (not
from the closest city)!
(g) Answer: The case is, the area is surrounded by mountains
(so we do not suspect that the murderer came from further
(h) Question: (Mishnah): A chick found within 50 Amos of
Reuven's dovecote belongs to Reuven;
1. Even though there are dovecotes with more birds, we
assume it came from Reuven.
(i) Answer #1: The case is, no dovecote in the area has more
1. Question (Mishnah): If it is more than 50 Amos away,
the finder keeps it.
(j) Answer #2: The chick cannot fly, it only walks.
i. If no dovecote in the area has more birds,
surely it came from Reuven's!
1. (Rav Ukva bar Chama): A chick does not walk more
than 50 Amos. (If it is not within 50 of any
dovecote, we must say that it flew, we assume that
it came from elsewhere in the world.)
2. Question (R. Yirmeyah): What if one leg is within 50
Amos and the other is outside?
(k) Question (Mishnah): If it is found between two dovecotes
it belongs to the owner of the closer one.
i. R. Yirmeyah was expelled from the Beis Medrash
for this (Rashi - for asking too many
questions; Tosfos - for not accepting that it
cannot walk more than 50 Amos).
1. This is even if one has more chicks than the other!
(l) Answer: No, both have the same amount.
(m) Question: We should assume that it came from elsewhere in
the world (since it cannot walk more than 50)!
(n) Answer: The case is, it was found on a path between
vineyards, so it can walk more than 50;
1. It could not have come from another dovecote, since
a chick will never walk out of sight of its nest
(and these are the only two dovecotes in sight).