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1) [line 3] MISHNASENU, EINI YODE'A MI SHENA'AH - regarding our Mishnah, I do not know who taught it (I do not know which Tana is being quoted, since our Mishnah is problematic as the Gemara will explain)
2) [line 21] KOL HA'KODEM B'NACHALAH, YOTZ'EI YEREICHO KODMIN - the relative who has precedence to receive the inheritance, [if he is no longer alive] his offspring have prior rights to the inheritance before the next closest relative
3) [line 25] "[ISH KI YAMUS U'VEN] EIN LO [V'HA'AVARTEM ES NACHALASO L'VITO]" - "[When a man dies and] he has no [son, you shall pass his inheritance to his daughter.]" (Bamidbar 27:8)
4) [line 25] AYEIN ALAV - look into him (that is, investigate whether or not the deceased man's son had any offspring who might take their father's place to inherit the deceased; if he has no offspring, then the inheritance is to be passed to the daughter of the deceased)
5) [line 1] NACHALAH MEMASHMESHES V'HOLECHES AD REUVEN - (lit. an inheritance feels and goes all the way up to Reuven) When a person dies with no offspring to inherit him, his inheritance goes "up" to the previous generation, to the father of the deceased. If the father is not alive, the inheritance goes to the father's other offspring. If the father is not alive and has no other offspring, the inheritance continues upward to the father's father. If he is not alive, the inheritance goes to his other offspring. In this manner, we will always be able to find a relative to inherit the property of the deceased. If none of the patrilineal forebears are alive and none have any other offspring, then the inheritance will eventually be passed up to Reuven (if the deceased was from Shevet Reuven), the progenitor of the Shevet. Since there is a tradition that no Shevet will ever entirely disappear, there is certainly a relative to inherit the deceased, even though that relative is very distant.
6) [line 2] GEMIREI D'LO KALAH SHIVTA - we have a tradition that no Shevet will ever be entirely destroyed
7) [line 5] MA'ASEH TZEDUKIM - an act of the Tzedukim. The Tzedukim (and Baitusim) were students of Tzadok (and Baitus) who rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
8) [line 6] TAVNA L'DINANA - we returned to our proper way of judging [the laws of inheritance]
9) [line 8] NITPAL LAHEN - Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai attended to them [to deal with their erroneous ruling]
10) [line 10] MEFATPET KENEGDO - he murmured to him
12) [line 15] "[V']ELEH VENEI TZIV'ON V'AYAH VA'ANAH, [HU ANAH ASHER MATZA ES HA'YEMIM BA'MIDBAR BI'R'OSO ES HA'CHAMORIM L'TZIV'ON AVIV]" - "[And] these are the sons of Tziv'on: Ayah and Anah, [he is the same Anah who discovered the mules in the desert while he was pasturing the donkeys for Tziv'on, his father.]" (Bereishis 36:24)
13) [line 18] SHEVOR MALKA - (lit. King Shapur II, the king of Persia, who ruled 309-379 CE, during the Sassanid Dynasty.) Rabah referred to Shmuel as Shevor Malka to indicate that he was a "king" in Halachah.
14) [line 21] HU ANAH D'ME'IKARA - he is the original Anah (the same one mentioned earlier in the verse)
15) [last line] B'CHACH ATAH POTRANI?! - with this you want to take leave of me (i.e. this is not a sufficient answer)?!
16) [last line] SHOTEH - fool