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Bava Basra 74

BAVA BASRA 71-75 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 1] V'GANU A'PARKID - and they were sleeping on their backs (O.F. sovins)
2) [line 1] V'HAVA ZEKIFA BIRKEI D'CHAD MINAIHU - and the knee of one of them was bent upright

3a) [line 2] V'AYIL TAIYA TUSEI BIRKEI - and the Arab merchant went underneath his knee
b) [line 2] KI RACHIV GAMLA U'ZEKIFA ROMCHEI - while he was riding a camel and holding a spear upright

4a) [line 3] PASKI CHADA KARNA DI'SECHELTA D'CHAD MINAIHU - I cut off one corner of the Tzitzis of one of them
b) [line 4] V'LO HAVAH MISTEGEI LAN - and we were not able to move (the animals were not able to move -- RASHBAM)

5) [line 5] DILMA SHAKLAS MIDI MINAIHU? - Perhaps you took something from them?

6) [line 6] AHADREI, D'GEMIREI D'MAN D'SHAKIL MIDI MINAIHU LO MISTEGI LEI - Give it back, because we have a tradition that one who takes something from them will not be able to move

7a) [line 8] KOL ABA CHAMRA - every "Aba" is [as foolish as] a donkey (Rabah bar bar Chanah's name was Aba. "Rabah" is a contraction of "Rav Aba" -- see Aruch Erech Abaye)
b) [line 9] V'CHOL BAR BAR CHANAH SICHSA - and every "bar bar Chanah" is a fool

8) [line 10] L'MEIDA IY K'VEIS SHAMEI, IY K'VEIS HILLEL - to find out if the Halachah follows the opinion of Beis Shamai or that of Beis Hillel (TZITZIS: BEIS SHAMAI / BEIS HILLEL)
There is a Mitzvah to wear Tzitzis (fringes) on four-cornered garments, as it states in the Torah (Devarim 22:12). Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue (Menachos 41b) whether one must double over three strings through each hole of the garment (Beis Hillel), or whether one must double over four strings (Beis Shamai).

9) [line 11] IBA'I LACH L'MIMNEI CHUTIN - you should have counted the threads

10) [line 11] UL'MIMNEI CHULYOS - and to count the spaces [in between the knots of the threads] (It seems as if the Gemara assumes that given the number of spaces in between the knots, with a standard size and width of threads, it is possible to deduce the relative length of the wound thread and the unwound thread, the second argument of Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel in Menachos ibid. However, since there is a fixed number of knots -- five -- the number of spaces is *always* four. Dikdukei Sofrim #400 brings the Girsa of the Hamburg manuscript, "Havah Miba'i Lach *l'Mimninhu* u'Meisi u'Meimar" - "You should have counted them (only the threads) and come and told us [their number.]" Accordingly, Rabah bar bar Chana was only asked why he did not count the threads.)

11a) [line 13] D'HADRA LEI AKRABA - it was surrounded (i.e. patrolled) by a scorpion
b) [line 13] V'KAIMA KI CHAMREI CHIVARTEI - and it was steadfast [in its patrol] like white donkeys

12) [line 14] OY LI SHE'NISHBATI - woe unto Me that I have taken an oath [to keep the Jewish people in exile]

13) [line 15] MI MEFER LI? - who will annul my vow? (HATARAS NEDARIM - revoking vows)
(a) When an adult makes a Neder (or designates Chalah, Terumah or Kodshim) or Nezirus, and he regrets having made the Neder, he may have it revoked by a Beis Din of three (if they are not outstanding authorities) or a Yachid Mumcheh (an outstanding authority). The general method used is that Beis Din investigates whether the person would not have made the Neder in the first place had he been aware of a particular fact. This investigation provides the person with a "Pesach" (opening) with which the Beis Din can revoke the Neder.
(b) There is a Machlokes Rishonim as to the status of a Yachid Mumcheh. The RAN rules that he must be an outstanding Torah authority well versed in the laws of Nedarim. Others rule that in addition to the previous, the scholar must also have Semichah (RAMBAN, cited by the Ran in Nedarim 23a).
(c) Even though the topic of our Gemara is *Hataras* Nedarim, it uses the word "Mefer," which refers to *Hafaras* Nedarim, a slightly different topic (see Background to Bava Metzia 96:13). (A similar interchange of topics is found in Bechoros 37a, as TOSFOS ibid. DH Meferin and the Mesores ha'Sas point out.)

14) [line 18] DILMA SHEVU'ASA D'MABUL HU - perhaps it was the Shevu'ah of [not to bring another] Flood

15) [line 20] BELU'EI D'KORACH - the members of the rebellion of Korach who were swallowed up by the ground (as described in Bamidbar 16:30-34)

16) [line 20] CHAZA'I TREI BIZ'EI - I saw two cracks [in the ground]
17) [line 20] V'HAVU KA MAFKEI KUTRA - and smoke was coming out
18) [line 21] SHAKAL GAVEVA D'AMRA - he took a ball of wool
19) [line 21] V'AMSHINAH B'MAYA - and soaked it in water
20) [line 22] DA'ATZITAH B'ROSHAH D'DROMCHA - he stuck it on the top of a spear

21) [line 22] V'AILEI HASAM - and he brought it up to there (into the cracks in the ground)

22) [line 23] V'CHI APIK HAVAH ICHRACH ICHRUCHEI - and when it came out, it (the ball of wool) was singed

23) [line 24] ATZIS MAI SHAM'AS - pay attention to what you hear!
24) [line 25] BADA'IN - liars
25) [line 25] KOL TELASIN YOMEI MEHADER LEHU GEIHINOM L'HACHA K'VASAR B'KALACHAS - every thirty days, Gehinom brings them back to here, like meat [being stirred] in a pot

26) [line 28] HEICHA D'NASHKEI AR'A U'REKI'A A'HADADEI - where earth and heaven touch (lit. kiss) each other

27) [line 29] SHAKALTA L'SILTA'I - I took my breadbasket
28) [line 30] ASNACHTA B'CHAVSA DI'REKI'A - I placed it in one of the windows of the heaven

29) [line 30] AD'MATZLINA BE'ISEI V'LO ASHKACHTEI - while I finished praying, I looked for it and I did not find it

30) [line 32] HAI GALGELA DI'REKI'A HU D'HADAR - it is the heavenly sphere that is revolving

31) [line 32] NETAR AL L'MACHAR [KI HASHTA] HACHA U'MASHKACHAS LAH - wait until tomorrow [at this time] here and you will find it

32) [line 34] REBBI YOCHANAN MISHTA'I - Rebbi Yochanan related
33) [line 37] DAMYAN EINEI KI'TREI SIHAREI - its eyes were like two moons
34a) [line 37] V'NAFUTZ MAYA MI'TARTEI ZIMEI / USYEI - and it spurted water from its two nostrils
b) [line 38] KI'TREI MAVREI D'SURA - like the two rivers of Sura

35) [line 41] ANA BRIYAH KALAH SHEBA'YAM - I am one of the smaller (lighter) creatures in the sea

36) [line 41] AZILNA L'FUMA D'LIVYASAN - I am going to the mouth of the Leviathan (I will be eaten today -- RASHBAM)

37) [line 42] IZA D'YAMA - the sea-goat
38) [line 43] DI'VECHISHA - searches
39) [line 45] KARTELISA - a chest
40) [line 45] D'HAVU KA MIKBE'EI BAH AVANIM TOVOS U'MARGALIYOS - on which were set precious stones and pearls

41) [line 46] HADREI LAH MINEI D'CHAVREI D'MIKREI KARSHA - surrounding it were types of fish that are called "Karsha" (the modern Hebrew word for shark is Karish)

42) [last line] NACHIS BAR AMORA'EI L'ASUYAH - a diver dived down to bring it (the chest)


43) [line 1] V'RAGASH - [the fish] sensed [the diver]
44) [line 1] U'VA'I L'SHAMTEI L'ATMEI - and it wanted to cut off (i.e. bite off) his (the diver's) leg/thigh

45) [line 2] V'SHADA ZIKA D'CHALA - (a) and he threw down a bottle of vinegar (RASHBAM); (b) according to the Girsa "v'Shada Chala" (without the word "Zika") - and he threw down some sand (RABEINU GERSHOM)

46) [line 2] V'NACHAS - and it (the shark) went down
47) [line 4] D'ASIDAH D'SHADYA TECHELTA BAH L'TZADIKEI L'ALMA D'ASI - who, in the future, will place in it (the chest) the Techeles that is designated for the Tzadikim for the World to Come

48) [line 5] RAV YEHUDAH HINDEVA MISHTA'I - Rebbi Yehudah of Ethiopia related

49) [line 7] EVEN TAVA - a precious stone
50) [line 8] D'HAVAH HADIR LAH TANINA - which was surrounded by a great sea creature (serpent)

51a) [line 9] ASA TANINA [RAGASH] - the serpent came [and sensed the diver and the ship]
b) [line 9] KA BA'I L'MIVLA LAH L'SEFINASA - and tried to swallow the ship

52) [line 10] ASA PISHKANTZA - a female raven came by
53) [line 10] PASKEI L'REISHEI - and cut off its head
54) [line 11] ISHAPICHU MAYA V'HAVU DAMA - the water [seemed to] turn to blood (from the large quantity of blood that spilled out of the body of the serpent)

55a) [line 11] ASA TANINA CHAVREI - another serpent came by
b) [line 12] SHAKLEI V'TALYAH LEI, V'CHAYAH - and took it (the stone) and hung it on him (the first serpent), and he came back to life (the stone causing the flesh to reconnect and return to its original state)

56) [line 12] HADAR ASA, KA BA'I (BAL'A) [L'MIVLA] L'SEFINASA - it (the first serpent) tried again to swallow up the ship

57) [line 13] HADAR ASA (TZIPERA) [PISHKANTZA] - the female raven returned
58) [line 13] (SHAKLUHA LEHA'HU EVEN TAVA, SHADYUHA L'EFINASA) [SHAKLAS LEHA'HI EVEN TAVA U'PARACH B'HADAH; NAFLAH HA'HI EVEN TAVA B'SEFINASA] - it (the female raven) took the precious stone and flew with it; [as it flew over the ship] the precious stone fell into the ship (The Girsa is from the Bach #2)

59) [line 14] HAVAH HANEI TZIPOREI MELICHEI BAHADAN - there were salted (salt-cured) birds with us

60) [line 14] (OSVINHU ALAIHU) [TALINAN NIHELAIHU] - we hung it (the stone) on them (the salt-cured birds) [to check if it would have any effect on them -- RASHBAM] (The Girsa is from Dikdukei Sofrim #4)

61) [line 15] SHAKLUHA U'FARCHU LEHU BA'HADAH - they [came back to life and] took it and flew away with it

62) [line 16] NIZDA'AZE'A - he became very frightened
63) [line 16] NIN'AR REBBI ELIEZER - Rebbi Eliezer woke up
64) [line 17] MA'OR GADOL - a great light
65) [line 18] "...EINAV K'AF'APEI SHACHAR" - "[His sneezes flash forth light, and] his eyes are like the brightness of the daybreak." (Iyov 41:10) - This verse is part of the description of Leviathan.

66) [line 19] HAVAI ATMA D'VISRA BA'HADAN - there was a thigh of meat with us

67) [line 19] PESACHNA V'NAKRINA V'ANACHNA A'ISBEI - we cut it open to remove the forbidden fats and the Gid ha'Nasheh, and laid it on the grass

68a) [line 20] AD'MAISINAN TZIVEI - as we [went out and] gathered wood chips [for kindling]
b) [line 20] CHALAM ATMA - the thigh was healed (the tissue was reconnected by the healing powers of the particular grass upon which we laid it)

69) [line 20] V'TAVINAN - and we roasted it
70) [line 21] CHAZINHU L'HANAHU GUMREI D'HAVU KA MELACHASHEI - we saw that the coals were still smoldering (twelve months later)

71) [line 22] HA'HU ISBA, SAMTAREI HAVAH - that grass was Samtarei, a healing herb that can reconnect tissue

72) [line 22] GUMREI D'RISMA - coals of Rosem wood, which continue to burn inside long after their exterior is extinguished

73) [line 23] ARZILEI D'YAMA - the sea buffalo
74a) [line 23] LIVYASAN NACHASH BARI'ACH - the Leviathan that is a bar-like serpent (a male)
b) [line] LIVYASAN NACHASH AKALASON - the Leviathan that is a round-like serpent (a female)

75) [line 24] "BA'YOM HA'HU YIFKOD HASH-M BE'CHARBO HA'KASHAH VEHA'GEDOLAH VEHA'CHAZAKAH AL LIVYASAN NACHASH BARI'ACH V'AL LIVYASAN NACHASH AKALASON V'HARAG ES HA'TANIN ASHER BA'YAM." - "On that day, HaSh-m will bring punishment with His harsh, great, and powerful sword, upon the Leviathan, the bar-like serpent, and upon the Leviathan, the round-like serpent, and He will kill the great creature in the sea." (Yeshayah 27:1)

76) [line 25] (SIMAN KOL SHA'AH YARDEN) - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the following three statements of Rav Yehudah citing Rav brought by the Gemara that follows:

  1. *Kol* refers to "*Kol* Mah she'Bara ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu b'Olamo" (line 25)
  2. *Sha'ah* refers to "*b'Sha'ah* she'Bikesh ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu li'Vros Es ha'Olam" (line 36)
  3. *Yarden* refers to "*Yarden* Yotzei mi'Ma'aras Pamyas" (line 42)
77) [line 28] SIRES - He castrated
78) [line 29] "BEHEMOS B'HAREREI ELEF" - "[For every beast of the forest belongs to Me,] the cattle of a thousand mountains." (Tehilim 50:10)

79) [line 31] TZINEN - He cooled [down its lust]
80) [line 31] "HINEH NA CHOCHO V'MASNAV V'ONO BISHRIREI VITNO." - "Behold, now, its strength is in its loins, and its power is in the navel of his belly." (Iyov 40:16) - The first half of the verse refers to the male, whose strength is [still] in its loins (since it was castrated) and the second half refers to the female whose power is [still] in its belly (since it never gave birth).

81) [line 33] NEKEVAH MELICHA MA'ALI - the female Leviathan, when salted, is superior

82) [line 34] LAV ORACH AR'A - it is not proper manners
83) [line 38] "B'CHOCHO RAGA HA'YAM UVI'SVUNASO MACHATZ RAHAV." - "With His strength, He divides the sea, and with His wisdom, He crushes the proud." (Iyov 26:12) - The Gemara adds that the name of the Angel of the Sea is "Rahav."

84) [line 40] "LO YARE'U V'LO YASHCHISU B'CHOL HAR KODSHI [KI MAL'AH HA'ARETZ DE'AH ES HASH-M] KA'MAYIM LA'YAM MECHASIM." - "They will not harm and they will not destroy in all of My holy mountain, [for the land will be full of knowledge of HaSh-m] like water covering the sea." (Yeshayah 11:9)

85a) [line 42] ME'ARAS PAMYAS (alt. PANYAS) - the cave of Pami'as (in which the Banyas spring, one of the main water sources of the Yarden River, originates). Pami'as is the name of an ancient city in the north-east of Eretz Yisrael which is known today as Banyas.
b) [line 43] YAMA SHEL SIVCHAI - the Lake of Sivchai, the Chula Lake (apparently, this was the small lake that was, until recently, located to the north of the Kineret; the lake was dried in recent times because the area around it turned into swampland which bred malaria-infested mosquitoes and it is now known as the Chula Valley).
c) [line 43] YAMA SHEL TEVERYAH - the Sea of Tiberias, Lake Kineret

86) [line 43] YAM HA'GADOL - the Mediterranean sea; it is called the Great Sea because it is the sea of Eretz Yisrael (MISHNAH BERURAH 228:2) (It is interesting to note that the Gemara does not mention Yam ha'Melach (the Dead Sea) in the path of the Yarden River, and instead lists Yam ha'Gadol, to which the Yarden is *not* a tributary -- see ANAF YOSEF)

87) [line 44] "... YIVTACH KI YAGI'ACH YARDEN EL PIHU." - "... He is assured that he will draw the Yarden into his mouth." (Iyov 40:23) - The Gemara interprets this to mean that he, the "Behemos b'Harerei Elef," is confident of survival, as long as the Yarden River flows into the mouth of the Leviathan.

88) [line 47] (SIMAN YAMIM GAVRIEL RA'EV) - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the following three statements of Rav Dimi when he came [to Bavel] to relay the teachings of Rebbi Yonasan or Rebbi Yochanan (the Girsa of Rebbi Yonasan for all three statements is found in the Munich manuscript -- DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #400 and to Daf 75a #3. However, the Hamburg and Rome manuscripts both have Rebbi Yochanan for all three statements -- Dikdukei Sofrim #2) brought by the Gemara that follows:

  1. *Yamim* refers to "Mai di'Chesiv 'Ki Hu Al *Yamim* Yesadah...'?" (line 47)
  2. *Gavriel* refers to "Asid *Gavriel* La'asos Kanigya Im Livyasan" (last line)
  3. *Ra'ev* refers to "b'Sha'ah she'Livyasan *Ra'ev* Motzi Hevel mi'Piv" (Daf 75a, line 5)
89) [line 47] "KI HU AL YAMIM YESADAH, V'AL NEHAROS YECHONENEHA." - "For He established it upon seas, and upon rivers He set it." (Tehilim 24:2)

90a) [line 49] YAMAH SHEL SEDOM - the Sea of Sedom, the Dead Sea
b) [line 49] YAMAH SHEL CHEILAS - the Sea of Cheilas (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #1: SHACHAL. Today, the Shachal is a spring in the lower Galilee that enters into the Yarden); perhaps this refers to the Hula Lake, see above 85b.
c) [line 50] YAMAH SHEL CHEILSA / CHILTA - Sea or Lake of Chulta, probably the navigable portion of the Orontes up to Antiochia
d) [line 50] YAM ASPAMYA - (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #1: YAM PAMYAS) see above, entry 85a

91a) [last line] YARDEN - the Jordan River
b) [last line] YARMUCH - a river that empties into the Yarden River below the Kineret and which forms the boundary between Syria and Jordan
c) [last line] KIRUMYON - (a) perhaps this is the Na'aman River, near Ako, a tributary of the Mediterranean Sea (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Yerushalayim 5739, p. 172); (b) the Amanah River, near Damascus (ARUCH)
d) [last line] PIGAH - (a) a tributary of the Yarkon River, near Rosh ha'Ayin, where there existed a small village by the name of Fija, not far from Petach Tikvah (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Yerushalayim 5739, p.153); (b) the River Parpar, near Damascus (ARUCH)

92) [last line] GAVRIEL - the name of a ministering angel, who role is to mitigate Divine punishment

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