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Bava Basra 60

BAVA BASRA 60 - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann of Lawrence, N.Y., out of love for the Torah and for those who study it.

1) [line 1] L'ALTAR HEVEI CHAZAKAH - [the person who built the wall and blocked his neighbor's window] immediately gains a Chazakah [when the neighbor does not protest contiguously with the building of the wall, such that his neighbor may never again open a window into the courtyard without the permission of the builder of the wall]

2) [line 4] MARBEH ALEIHEM ES HA'DERECH - that is, he will increase the number of people entering and leaving the courtyard

3) [line 8] SHE'CHALKO (BI'SHNAYIM) [LI'SHNAYIM] - he divided it (his room) in half

4) [line 8] AFTAI - (lit. an extension) a loft that the person constructed without adding to his building, i.e. he divided the height of his apartment in order to construct the loft

5) [line 15] D'KA SHAKIL TEMANYA BE'CHATZER - since [as a result] he will be awarded (lit. take) eight [Amos] in the courtyard (the space in front of his entryway, which he receives as stated in the Gemara -- Daf 11a)

6a) [line 16] PISCHA ZUTRA - a small entryway
b) [line 16] PISCHA RABA - a large entryway

7) [line 18] D'KA SHAKIL TAMNEI BE'CHATZER - since [as a result] he will be awarded (lit. take) eight [Amos] in the courtyard (four Amos for each entryway, which he receives as stated in the Gemara -- Daf 11a)

8) [line 22] CHALAL - a hollow space such as a cave
9a) [line 22] BOROS - round pits or wells that are dug in the ground; cisterns
b) [line 22] SHICHIN - narrow elongated ditches
c) [line 22] ME'AROS - caves (usually leading to a spring or water source)
10) [line 22] AGALAH - a wagon (pulled by an animal)
11) [line 23] TE'UNAH AVANIM - laden with rocks
12a) [line 23] ZIZIN - small wooden protrusions that jut out of a wall
b) [line 23] GEZUZTERA'OS - the ends of (large) beams that jut out of a wall

13) [line 24] KONES L'SOCH SHELO - he moves [the location of his wall] in onto his property [rather than on the property line]

14) [line 24] HAREI ZO B'CHEZKASAH - it may remain in its present state (we assume that the person who built the Zizin and Gezuztera'os was Kones l'Soch Shelo)

15) [line 25] ZIMNIN D'MIFCHIS - at times it (the cover of the cave) will [decay and] collapse [when someone or something walks over it]

16) [line 26] MAVO'AH - an alleyway (onto which many courtyards open. However, it is not a Reshus ha'Rabim -- see Background to Bava Kama 62:23)

17) [line 27] ZIL KOTZ - go and cut it off


18a) [line 1] ZIL HA'IDNA - go now
b) [line 1] V'SA L'MACHAR - and come back tomorrow
19) [line 1] SHADAR - he sent [a worker]
20) [line 3] IY KUTZ DIDI, KOTZ DIDACH - if mine is cut down, you must cut yours down

21) [line 6] D'YASVEI B'TULEI - to sit in its shade

22) [line 9] "HISKOSHESHU VA'KOSHU, [HA'GOY LO NICHSAF!]" - "Gather yourselves together, gather together, O undesired nation (Yisrael)!" (Tzefanyah 2:1) - The words "Hiskosheshu" and "va'Koshu" are reminiscent of the words for straw, "Kash," and adornment, "Kishut." "Hiskosheshu va'Koshu" is interpreted to mean, "Take the straw out of your eye first before you tell others to do the same," or "Adorn yourself first and then adorn others (especially in the matter about which you are about to rebuke them)!" (RASHBAM)

23) [line 9] KESHOT ATZMECHA V'ACHAR KACH KESHOT ACHEIRIM - correct (lit. adorn) yourself [first] and then correct others

24) [line 19] METZAR SHE'HECHEZIKU BO RABIM - an area that the public became accustomed to use

25) [line 21] HANI MILEI HEICHA D'LEIKA REVACHA - those words [of Rav Yehudah -- RABEINU GERSHOM] refer to a case where there is no ample space [for the public]

26a) [line 24] EIN MESAIDIN - (a) it is prohibited to plaster [a house, as a sign of mourning for the Beis ha'Mikdash] (RASHBAM) (when it is plastered in the way that kings plaster their palaces, i.e. without a layer of mortar underneath but rather with layers of plaster only -- RAMBAM Hilchos Ta'anis 5:12 and Kesef Mishnah there); (b) it is prohibited to [*entirely*] plaster [a house] (RABEINU GERSHOM, TUR OC 560:1)
b) [line 24] EIN MECHAIRIN - (a) it is prohibited to produce pictures with plaster (RASHBAM, 1st explanation, RABEINU GERSHOM); (c) it is prohibited to plaster [a house with extremely white plaster] (and the Beraisa is in the form "Zo v'Ein Tzarich Lomar Zo" (RASHBAM, 2nd explanation)
c) [line 25] EIN MEFAICHIN - (a) it is prohibited to produce pictures with colored paint (RASHBAM); (b) it is prohibited to paint a house with colored paint (NIMUKEI YOSEF); (c) it is prohibited to paint a house [bright] white after it is plastered (RABEINU CHANANEL, Kesav Yad. The Girsa *she'Mesuyad* instead of *she'Metzuyar* is probably also the correct Girsa and the intention of RABEINU GERSHOM)

27) [line 25] BI'ZEMAN HA'ZEH - nowadays, since the Beis Ha'Mikdash has been destroyed

28a) [line 27] LO YASUD ADAM ES BEISO B'SID - it is prohibited to plaster one's house with plaster
b) [line 27] V'IM IREV BO CHOL O TEVEN MUTAR - but if one darkens the plaster with sand or straw, it is permitted

29) [line 28] TERACHSID - extra-strong plaster
30) [line 29] PERUSHIN - (lit. separatists) exceptionally righteous people
31) [line 30] NITPAL LAHEN - Rebbi Yehoshua attended to them (to deal with their potentially dangerous custom)

32) [line 34] BIKURIM
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Rishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the *Mikra Bikurim*, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Egypt and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(c) Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkos. They must be brought back into Yerushalayim and eaten there.

33) [line 34] PEIROS ACHERIM - other fruits (not of the seven species)

34) [line 34] NISUCH HA'MAYIM
(a) One of the ceremonies of the holiday of Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash was the Nisuch ha'Mayim (water libation) ceremony, in which water was poured on the Mizbe'ach as a libation instead of wine. Tana'im argue as to whether this ceremony was performed all seven days of Sukos, or only six days (days 2-7) or two days (days 6 and 7). Another opinion holds that it was performed *eight* days, the seven days of Sukos and Shmini Atzeres (Sukah 3a; however see Hagahos Didukei Sofrim ad loc. #3, who suggests that no opinion holds that it was done for only two or six days).
(b) The Nisuch itself was done as follows. Water was drawn at daybreak from the Shilo'ach spring that is located to the south of the Temple Mount and was brought to the Azarah in a joyous procession. When the morning Tamid sacrifice was brought, a Kohen poured the water into one of the "Sefalim" at the top of the Mizbe'ach (the silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach).
(c) This ceremony was associated with much rejoicing. On the nights preceding the Nisuch ha'Mayim, people gathered in the Azaros of the Beis ha'Mikdash to rejoice and sing praises to HaSh-m until the morning, when it was time to draw the water. The Leviyim played more musical instruments than usual and the greatest Talmidei Chachamim danced and juggled exultantly. So many torches and lamps were lit in the Mikdash area to provide light for the celebrants that the streets of the nearby city of Yerushalayim were illuminated as bright as day. The Mishnah, describing the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah (Sukah 51a), states that anyone who has not seen the rejoicing of the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah has not seen rejoicing in his life.

35) [line 37] "BA'ME'ERAH ATEM NE'ARIM, V'OSI ATEM KOV'IM, HA'GOI KULO." - "You are cursed with a curse; for you have robbed me, this whole nation." (Malachi 2:9) - The nation of Yisrael accepts upon itself to be cursed for its wrongdoing if the entire nation is able to practice what is expected of them.

36) [line 40] KASA D'HARSENA - small fish that are cooked with flour in their own oil

37) [line 42] BAS TZID'A - (O.F. tenple) the temples (the Gemara usually translates "Tzid'a" as the temples and "*Bas* Tzid'a" as the sides of the upper jaw (underneath the temples). However, since our Gemara only mentions one of them, RASHBAM translates it as the temples.

38) [line 42] "IM ESHKACHECH YERUSHALAYIM TISHKACH YEMINI. TIDBAK LESHONI L'CHIKI [IM LO EZKERI'CHI...]" - "If I forget you, O Yerushalayim, let my right hand forget her cunning. Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth [if I do not remember you; if I do not set Yerushalayim above my highest joy.]" (Tehilim 137:5-6)

39) [line 43] EFER MAKLEH - ashes from burned wood that are found in stoves and ovens

40) [line 44] "LASUM LA'AVEILEI TZIYON, LASES LAHEM PE'ER TACHAS EFER" - "To appoint to those who mourn in Zion, to give to them splendor instead of ashes" (Yeshayah 61:3)

41) [line 46] "SIMCHU ES YERUSHALAYIM V'GILU VAH KOL OHAVEHA; SISU ITAH MASOS KOL HA'MISABELIM ALEHA." - "Rejoice with Yerushalayim, and be glad with her, all you who love her; rejoice for joy with her, all you who mourn for her!" (Yeshayah 66:10)

42) [line 48] MI'YOM SHE'PASHTAH MALCHUS HA'RESHA'AH - from the day that the Roman Empire (lit. the wicked kingdom) spread [its conquest]

43a) [line 50] SHAVU'A HA'BEN - the Bris celebration of the son (it is called *Shavu'a* ha'Ben because it occurs after seven full days have passed -- RASHI to Bava Kama 80a)
b) [line 50] YESHU'A HA'BEN - the redemption celebration of the son (Rashi (ibid.) states that this refers to the festive meal that is held at the time of the Pidyon ha'Ben, the Redemption of the Firstborn Son (see Background to Bava Metzia 102:31). TOSFOS (ibid.), quoting Rabeinu Tam, states that this refers to the festive meal that is held to thank HaSh-m for saving the child from the perils of childbirth

44) [last line] MUTAV SHE'YIHEYU SHOGEGIN V'AL YIHEYU MEZIDIN - it is preferable that they transgress b'Shogeg (unintentionally) and not [to tell them that it is prohibited, in which case they will] transgress b'Mezid (intentionally) (see Insights for the application of this principle here)

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