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Bava Basra 24

BAVA BASRA 20-25 - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann of Lawrence, N.Y., out of love for the Torah and for those who study it.

The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

1) [line 1] SHEVIL SHEL KERAMIM - a path in a vineyard
2) [line 2] V'HADAR CHAZI LEI L'KINEI - and it can turn around and see its nest

By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(The current practice is to consider all women who have a show of blood to be a Zavah and therefore they must count seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.)

b) [line 5] PEROZDOR - (a) the cervical canal and vagina (RASHI to Nidah 17b); (b) the cervical canal (RAMBAM)
c) [line 5] MAKOR - the uterus (RASHI, RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos and Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 5)
d) [line 6] ALIYAH - (a) a duct alongside the top of the uterus and cervix (RASHI); (b) the uterine tubes (which lead to the ovaries) (RAMBAM); see Insights to Nidah 17:2

4a) [line 8] CHAYAVIN ALAV AL BI'AS MIKDASH - a woman who enters the Beis ha'Mikdash while she is Tamei because she found blood in the Perozdor is obligated to bring a sacrifice (TUM'AS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV)
(a) It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash (see next entry for a discussion of the boundaries of the various areas in the Mikdash) if he touched an Av ha'Tumah (Bamidbar 5:2). One who transgresses this prohibition b'Shogeg can become obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored. If he transgresses it b'Meizid, he is punished with lashes.
(b) What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(c) The Minchas Chatas is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chatas, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise -- RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).

There are three main Machanos (designated holy areas) within the city of Yerushalayim, corresponding to their respective areas in the Midbar (desert):
(a) The entire area within the walls of Yerushalayim, excluding Har ha'Bayis, is Machaneh Yisrael. This area corresponded to the area of encampment of the twelve tribes in the Midbar. Machaneh Yisrael is off-limits to Metzora'im (see Background to Bava Metzia 86:29. For a full discussion of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Kidushin 35:24). Metzora'im are also forbidden to enter any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.
(b) The area between the Azarah and the wall encompassing Har ha'Bayis, including the Ezras Nashim courtyard (TY #10), is Machaneh Leviyah. This corresponded to the area around the Mishkan, where the Leviyim encamped. Not only Metzora'im are prohibited to enter this area, but also Zavin and Zavos (see Background to Bava Kama 24:2, 5), Nidos (see above, entry #3a) and Yoldos (see Background to Kidushin 13:16).
(c) The entire area within the Azarah, i.e. the Ezras Yisrael (TY #22) and the Ezras Kohanim (TY #25, that contained the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Mizbe'ach (TY #47), and various Lishkos or chambers) -- but not the Ezras Nashim -- is Machaneh Shechinah (excluding the area under the gate to the Azarah known as Sha'ar Nikanor -- TY #18). This corresponded to the area of the Mishkan [within the Kela'im, curtains]. This area is even prohibited to a person who is Tamei Mes and Tamei Sheretz.

5) [line 9] SORFIN ALAV ES HA'TERUMAH - we burn Terumah because of it (the blood that was found in the Perozdor, if the woman then touched Terumah) (TERUMAH)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) The produce may not be eaten (and is known as Tevel) until both Terumos have been removed. The punishment for eating Tevel b'Mezid (intentionally) is Malkos and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. A non-Kohen may not eat Terumah. Even Kohanim and their fanilies and slaves may not eat Terumah unless they are Tehorim (ritually pure). Our Gemara rejects the possibility that one sprinkling of Mei Chatas (see above, entry #9) is enough to be Metaher a person to eat Terumah.
(c) If Terumah becomes Temei'ah, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "ba'Esh Yisaref" (Vayikra 7:19). The Kohanim may benefit from it while it is being burned, such as using it as fuel for a fire. Oil of Terumah that became Tamei may be used by the Kohanim for light on weekdays.

See Insights to the Daf.

7) [line 17] CHAVIS SHE'TZAFAH B'NAHAR - a barrel of wine that is floating in the river

(a) Wine that was poured as an idolatrous libation is Asur b'Hana'ah. This is derived from the verse, "Asher Chelev Zevacheimo Yochelu, Yishtu *Yein Nesicham*" - "Those who ate the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink offerings" (Devarim 32:38), which compares the wine of libations to an animal sacrificed for idolatrous purposes.
(b) The Chachamim prohibited the wine of a Nochri that was *not* poured as a libation (Stam Yeinam) out of fear that drinking wine together would lead to intermarriage. In order to avoid confusion between Yayin Nesech and Stam Yeinam, the Chachamim instituted that Stam Yeinam is also Asur b'Hana'ah. Although this is only an Isur mid'Rabanan, it is a very severe prohibition (see Chochmas Adam 75:1).

9) [line 21] (ME'HAI DIKRA) [ME'IHI DAKIRA] - from Is, a city on the western bank of the Euphrates, or the region surrounding it, that contained only Nochrim

10a) [line 26] IKULEI - (a) whirlpools and undertows caused by large stones under the surface of the water that cause boats (and barrels) to sink (RASHI); (b) the coves and inlets of the river [at the river's edge] (ARUCH)
b) [line 26] PESHUREI - (a) places in the river that contain melting snow that prevent the barrel from passing (RASHI); (b) rises or depressions at the river's edge that prevent the barrel from passing (ARUCH)
c) [line 26] HAVAH MATBE'I LAH - would have caused it to sink

11) [line 27] CHARIFA D'NAHARA NAKAT V'ASAI - the strong current [in the middle] of the river took it and carried it to here

12) [line 27] CHATZBA D'CHAMRA - a large earthenware pitcher of wine

(a) In the first three years after a fruit tree is planted, its fruits are called Orlah and are Asurim b'Hana'ah, as it states in Vayikra 19:23. (b) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit, he receives Malkos. If he derives benefit from Orlah (or any other food that is Asur b'Hana'ah), according to most Rishonim he is punished with Malkos (TOSFOS Chulin 120a DH Ela), while according to others, he is only punished with Makas Mardus, a Rabbinic institution of Malkos. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 8:16 -- see also Mishneh l'Melech to Hilchos Yesodei ha'Torah 5:8)

14) [line 31] ATZNU'EI B'GAVEI LO MATZNE'EI - a thief would not hide the wine in the vineyard from which he stole it

15) [line 32] ZIKEI D'CHAMRA - Nodos, i.e. leather bottles of wine
16) [line 33] BEI KUFA'EI - (a) hidden between the vines of a vineyard (which belonged to a Yisrael) (RASHI); (b) the name of a place (ARUCH, 1st explanation); (c) according to the Girsa Bei *Kipei* (with a "Kaf") - on a bridge (ARUCH, 2nd explanation)


17) [line 1] SHEFUCHA'EI - those who pour [wine from barrels into Nodos] (and in the place where the Nodos were found, most of them were Yisraelim)

18a) [line 1] RAVREVEI - large [Nodos]
b) [line 2] ZUTREI - small [Nodos]
19) [line 3] B'AVRUREI HAVAH MANCHEI - in order to balance the load of the two saddlebags of a donkey, a small Nod was added to one side

20a) [line 5] CHARUV - a carob tree
b) [line 5] SHIKMAH - a sycomore tree (or Egyptian fig -- see next entry)
21) [line 6] ILAN SERAK - a tree that does not produce fruit, such as Arazim (cedar) trees and Shikmim trees (sycomore, or Egyptian fig; even though it produces fruit, the fruit is inferior and thus the tree is considered an Ilan Serak, as the Mishnah says in Kela'im 6:4; see TOSFOS YOM TOV there)

22) [line 7] KOTZETZ - he must cut it down
23) [line 10] MISHUM NOYEI HA'IR - for the beauty of the city

(a) The Torah describes two areas around the walls of the cities of the Leviyim (Bamidbar 35:4-5). The first area is known as the Migrash of the cities, and it extends outward in each direction for one thousand Amos from the walls of each city. The second area is called "Sadeh," or field (Erchin 33b), and extends outward in each direction from the Migrash for one thousand Amos (according to RASHI; or two thousand Amos according to the RAMBAM Hilchos Shemitah v'Yovel 13:2 and the YAD RAMAH here #95). The city limits end at the outer border of this second area. (The RAMBAN in Bamidbar 35:2 suggests a novel interpretation: the Migrash extends 500 Amos from the city at its farthest and is circular. The Sadeh fills the corners of the square that circumscribes the circle of the Migrash.)
(b) The Migrash is an open space that may not contain fields, vineyards or permanent structures, and is meant to be used to pasture the animals of the city. According to our Gemara, it may contain trees. (See, however, RASHI and RASHASH to Sotah 27b DH Migrash.) The Sadeh is designated to be used for the fields and vineyards of the city.
(c) The Tana'im argue (Erchin ibid.) as to whether these laws only apply to the cities of the Leviyim or to all cities in Eretz Yisrael.

(a) KARPAF - An enclosed, residential area that is larger than a Beis Se'asayim (see below, (c)) is called a "Karpaf Yoser mi'Beis Se'asayim she'Hukaf l'Dirah." Karpifos are enclosed areas that are located outside of a settlement, that are usually used for storage and other such purposes. "Hukaf l'Dirah" means that the enclosure around the Karpaf was built for residential purposes.
(b) Since it is fully enclosed, any Karpaf is a Reshus ha'Yachid mid'Oraisa. A person who throws an object into it from Reshus ha'Rabim is Chayav. Carrying in it is permitted as long as most of it is not planted with grains or vegetables.
(c) BEIS SE'ASAYIM - the size of a field in which two Se'ah (1 Se'ah = approximately 7.2, 8.29 or 14.4 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of grain is normally planted, which is the area of the Azarah of the Mishkan, 50 by 100 Amos. The size of this field is 5000 square Amos (approximately 1039.68, 1152 or 1658.8 square meters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions).

26a) [line 19] NIZRA RUBO - if most of it was planted with grains or vegetables
b) [line 20] NITA RUBO - if most of it was planted with trees

27a) [line 24] KIDRA D'VEI SHUTFEI - a pot that belongs to partners
b) [line 24] LO CHAMIMA V'LO KERIRA - is neither hot nor cold

28) [line 27] KIDRA D'VEI SHUTFEI LO CHAMIMA V'LO KERIRA - if we had to wait for arrangements to be made for the townspeople to pay for the tree, it would never be cut down; rather, we cut down the tree and he claims his payment afterwards in Beis Din (RASHI)

29) [line 31] GOREN KAVU'A - (lit. a permanent threshing floor) a threshing floor used to thresh and winnow a large pile of grain, one which needs to be winnowed using a pitchfork (the winnowing action of the wind alone is not enough)

30) [line 33] NIRO - his plowed field
31) [line 35] KOL SHE'EINO ZOREH B'RACHAS - [a threshing floor used to thresh and winnow a small pile of grain,] one which does not need to be winnowed using a pitchfork (the winnowing action of the wind alone is enough)

32) [line 38] KACH MARCHIKIN (MI'DELU'AV UMI'KISHU'AV UMI'NETI'OSAV) [MIN MAKSHU'AV U'MIN MADLU'AV U'MIN NETI'OSAV] SHEL CHAVEIRO - so, too, must one keep [his Goren Kavu'ah] away from his neighbor's cucumber patch, pumpkin patch and other planted things (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM Girsa #2)

33a) [line 40] MAKSHU'AV - a cucumber patch
b) [line 40] MADLU'AV - a pumpkin patch
34) [line 40] AZIL AVKA - the dust (i.e. the chaff from the winnowing) flies
35) [line 40] ASI B'LIBEI - and lands on his flowers (the flowers of the vines, from which the vegetables will eventually grow. Should dust get into the vines at the flowering stage, it will stunt the growth of the vegetables. The word "b'Libei" is related to "Lavlevin," the Aramaic Targum of the word "Perach," "flower" -- RABEINU GERSHOM)

36) [last line] MATZAVI LEI - and cause them to dry out

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