ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 40
AVODAH ZARAH 40 (20 Nisan) - Today's Daf has been sponsored by Martin Fogel
of Carlsbad, California in memory of his father, Yaakov ben Shlomo Fogel, on
the day of his Yahrzeit.
(a) The Tana of the Beraisa considers 'T'ris she'Einah Terufah' to be not
mashed - if the head and the backbone are both recognizable.
(b) The Beraisa also defines 'Tzir she'Yesh Bah Dagah', as when one or two
Kilbiyos are floating in it. Even though one Kilbis is sufficient, the Tana
nevertheless needs to add 'or two' - to teach us that when the barrels are
open, where one Kilbis might have dropped in from the outside, two are
(c) Rav Huna interprets the earlier Beraisa 'Kol she'Rosh ve'Shedrah Nikar
Bah' literally. Rav Nachman says - either one or the other.
(a) Abaye reconciles what we just learned with the Mishnah in Chulin, which
gives the Si'man for fish as fins and scales, which seemingly precludes the
Simanim in our Mishnah - by establishing it by Ar'a or 'Palmuda', two kinds
of fish that have squat heads like non-Kasher fish (see also Tosfos DH
(b) Rav Yehudah in the name of Ula qualifies this Machlokes - by confining
it to the fish-juice of our Mishnah. If the T'ris was whole, then it would
certainly require both a long head and a backbone to be considered Kasher.
(c) When Rebbi Zeira heard this - he stopped eating mashed T'ris until he
recognized both a head and a backbone in the juice (because he held like Rav
(d) He had previously eaten them with one Siman - because he had established
the Machlokes between Rav Huna and Rav Nachman by whole fish, thinking that
in the case of T'ris Terufah, one Sim'an would suffice according to both
(a) Rav Papa adds that not only does one need both Simanim, but - that the
head and backbone of *each fish* must be discernible.
(b) The Beraisa - declares Kasher even a hundred pieces of fish if just one
of them has the Si'manim.
(c) When a Nochri brought Raban Shimon ben Gamliel a dish full of pieces of
fish of which he discovered one to have the Simanim - he declared all the
pieces in the dish to be Kasher.
(d) Rav Papa reconciles his own ruling with this Beraisa - by establishing
the Beraisa where all the pieces fit together to form one fish.
(e) The Chidush is - that we do not suspect that the pieces are really
pieces from different fish, and that they only fit together by a fluke.
(a) When Rav Huna bar Chin'na saw scales floating among a ship-load of
fish-juice that arrived in Sichra - he permitted the fish-juice.
(b) Rava's problem with this ruling was - that seeing as fish scales were
common in Sichra, how did he know that the fish-juice was not from a species
of non-Kasher fish, and that the scales had been in the boat from a previous
boat-load of fish?
(c) So Rava blew Shofros to announce that the fish-juice was T'reifah, and
Rav Huna bar Chin'na blew Shofros to announce that it was Kasher.
(a) Rebbi Yirmiyah from Difti cited Rav Papi, who told him that Rav Huna bar
Chin'na only permitted the above case with regard to juice, but not with
regard to the fish themselves. Rav Ashi citing Rav Papa however - maintained
that he permitted both.
(b) As a result of Rav Papa's statement, Rav Ashi declined to forbid the
pieces of fish that were on the boat (see Ya'avetz). He also declined to
declare them Kasher - due to Rav Yehudah quoting Ula, who required the head
and backbone of each fish to be identifiable (and not just scales).
(c) Rav Chin'na bar Idi said in front of Rav Ada bar Ahavah - that were a
Nochri to bring in a small boat-load of barrels in one of which they found
Kilbis, assuming the barrels were ...
1. ... open - they would all be permitted.
(d) The reason for the first of the two rulings - is that we assume that
they all contained Kilbis originally, but they somehow escaped from the
2. ... shut - only the one containing the Kilbis would be permitted.
(e) Rav Chin'na bar Idi heard this ruling from - Rav, Shmuel and Rebbi
(a) Rav B'runa (or Rav Kahana) Amar Rav ruled - that one may only purchase
fish-innards and fish-eggs from a 'Mumcheh' (someone whose standard of
Kashrus is impeccable).
(b) The Beraisa explains - that a non-Kasher fish gives birth to a baby
fish, whereas a Kasher fish lays eggs.
(c) This Beraisa caused Ula to ask Rav Dusta'i from Biri why Rav then
required purchasing fish-eggs from an expert, insinuating that non-Kasher
fish also produce eggs (from which the baby fish hatch?
(d) Rav Dusta'i from Biri replied - 'Sami mi'Ka'an Ubran' (erase 'fish-eggs
from the Beraisa).
(e) To reconcile the Beraisa with Rav without erasing 'Ubran', Rebbi Zeira
explains - that in fact, non-Kasher fish lay eggs too, only *they* hatch
whilst still inside the fish's stomach, whereas those of a Kasher fish
hatch only later.
(a) The objection we raise to the wording of the Beraisa 'ke'Simnei Beitzim
Kach Simnei Dagim' is - that the signs of fish are fins and scales (which do
not exist by eggs).
(b) So we amend the end of the statement ('Kach Simnei Dagim') to read -
'Kach Simnei Ubrei Dagim'.
(c) One distinguish between a Kasher egg and a non-Kasher one ...
1. ... by its shape - inasmuch as the former is rounded at one end and
pointed at the other, whereas the latter is either rounded at both ends or
(d) One would recognize the egg of a Sheretz - by seeing the white and the
2. ... by the positioning of its white and yoke - inasmuch as the white a
Kasher egg covers the yoke, whereas by a non-Kasher egg it is the other way
(a) In light of these Simanim, Rava establishes the need to purchase Ubrei
Dagim specifically from experts - when they have melted.
(b) How will Rav Dusta'i from Biri (who erased 'Ubrei Dagim' from the text)
now explains 'Kach Simnei Ubrei Dagim' - by amending it to 'Kirvei Dagim'
which he establishes by the fish's bladder.
(a) In the event that there is no 'Mumcheh', one may nevertheless purchase
fish-innards and eggs from someone who declares that he salted them - and
who testifies that they were Kasher and that he himself removed the innards.
(b) This is the opinion of Rav Yehudah. According to Rav Nachman - he is
obligated to point out the fish and declare that the innards came
specifically from them.
(c) Rav Yehudah indicated to Ada Dayla (meaning Ada his servant) - to do
like *he* had said.
(a) The Tana finds it necessary to permit the purchase of ...
1. ... whole leaves of Chiltis from a Nochri to teach us - that even if
there are some loose fruits among them, we assume that they became detached
from the leaves, and we do not suspect the Nochri to have added them
independently (after cutting them with a T'reifah knife).
(b) Rebbi Yossi forbids Shalachin, which Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina defines
as - when olives come loose as soon as someone holds them (and which, in his
opinion, can only be the result of wine added by the Nochri).
2. ... 'Zeisei Gluska'os ha'Megulgalin' - even where they have become very
soft and come loose, and he is teaching us here that we attribute this
softness to the oil that is being produced, and not to wine which the Nochri
(a) The Tana of the Beraisa - permits the purchase of locusts, flowers of a
caper-bush and leek with heads that come straight from a store, the place
where they are piled or from the ship (as we learned in our Mishnah
(b) Leeks with heads are not forbidden because of Bishul Akum - since they
can be eaten as they are.
(c) One may not purchase any of the above from a Nochri however - if he
sells them from a basket ...
(d) ... and the Tana makes the same distinction with regard to purchasing
apple-cider from Nochrim.
(a) When Rebbi once suffered from stomach-ache, he asked - whether one is
permitted to purchase apple-cider from Nochrim.
(b) Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi cited an incident that occurred with his
father, when he too suffered from the same ailment - and when they brought
him apple-cider from a Nochri that was seventy years old, which cured him.
(c) Rebbi reprimanded him for hiding such important information from him up
to that moment. They then brought him three hundred bottles of seventy
year-old apple-cider, and he too was cured.
(d) Upon recovering, he recited (presumably without Shem and Malchus) the
B'rachah 'Baruch ha'Makom she'Masar Olamo la'Shomrim".
(a) Our Mishnah concludes 've'Chein li'Terumah', which Rav Sheishes explains
to mean - that the same distinction (between what one buys from the
storehouse and from the basket) pertains to purchasing fruit (that is
subject to Terumah) from a Kohen who is suspected of selling Terumah (which
is cheaper than Chulin) as Chulin.
***** Hadran Alach 'Ein Ma'amidin *****
(b) The reason for the leniency when buying from him from the storehouse
is - because then he is afraid that the town inspectors will discover the
fraud, and declare the entire stock, Hefker.
***** Perek Kol ha'Tzelamim *****
(a) Rebbi Meir renders all images Asur be'Hana'ah - because they are all
worshipped once a year.
(b) According to the Chachamim, they are only forbidden if they are holding
one of three things, a stick, a bird - or a ball.
(c) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel forbids them - as long as they holding
(d) We ask that if all idols were served once a year, why the Chachamim
permitted them. We know that the Chachamim concur with Rebbi Meir in that
point - because if they did not, they would have countered that the idols
with nothing in their hands are simply not worshipped (yet they did not).
(a) Rebbi Yitzchak bar Yosef Amar Rebbi Yochanan explains the Machlokes by
stating that factually, it was the practice of the Nochri residents of Rebbi
Meir's town to worship even idols that were holding nothing, once a year,
and the basis of the Machlokes between Rebbi Meir and the Chachamim is -
whether we contend with the minority or not ...
(b) ... Rebbi Meir forbids the empty-handed images of all other places
because of those of his town (even though the latter constituted the
minority), whereas the Chachamim do not.
(c) It is not *any* image that they would worship and which Rebbi Meir
therefore forbids, Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel explained - only the
commemorative busts of the king (which they would make following his death).
(d) According to Rabah bar bar Chanah, they are placed - at the entrance of