ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 6
AVODAH ZARAH 6 - l'Iluy Nishmas Harav Ze'ev Wolf Rosengarten of Zurich,
Switzerland, who passed away on 14 Adar 5760, a person of "Sheleimus" in
every way. Dedicated in honor of his Yahrzeit by his nephew and Talmid, Mr.
Eli Rosengarten of Zurich.
(a) In connection with our Mishnah 'Sheloshah Yamim Lifnei Eidehen' - we ask
whether 'three days' includes the festival or not.
(b) We attempt to resolve the She'eilah from Rebbi Yishmael in a Beraisa,
who says 'Sheloshah Lifneihem u'Sheloshah le'Achareihem' - because if it was
inclusive, then Rebbi Yishmael would be counting the actual festival twice.
(c) In refuting the proof, we establish 'Sheloshah Lifneihem' as being
inclusive - and Rebbi Yishmael only said 'Sheloshah le'Achareihem'
(including the festival again) in order to match 'Sheloshah Lifneihem' (but
in reality, he holds 'Shenayim le'Achareihem').
(a) Based on the fact that Sunday is considered a Notzri (Christian)
festival, Rav Tachlifa bar Avdimi Amar Shmuel states - that according to
Rebbi Yishmael, one is never permitted to do business with a Notzri.
(b) This statement clashes with the previous one - that Sheloshah Yamim
includes the festival, in which case Wednesday and Thursday would be
(c) We get round the problem - by retracting from the previous statement
(inasmuch as according to Rebbi Yishmael, the three days are exclusive [like
we suggested initially]), and confining the She'ilah to the opinion of the
(a) The next Mishnah will discuss Kalanda, Satrunya and Kartesim - which are
the names of three Nochri festivals.
(b) Rav Chanin bar Rava explains that Kalanda takes place eight days after
the Tekufah (the beginning of the new season) - of Teives.
(c) Satrunya take place - eight days before the Tekufah.
(d) We quote the Pasuk "Achor va'Kedem Tzartani" - as a means of remembering
that Kalanda (which the Tana, like the Pasuk, mentions first) occurs after
the Tekufah, and Satrunya, before it, and not vice-versa.
(a) We ...
1. ... try to prove from here that 'Sheloshah Yamim' must be exclusive
(minus the festival itself) - because if it was inclusive, then the Tana
ought to have spoken about ten days, and not three.
(b) Rav Ashi finally extrapolates from the Lashon 'Lifnei Eidehen shel Akum
Sheloshah Yamim' - that 'Sheloshah Yamim' is exclusive, because if it was
inclusive, then the Tana should have said 'Eidehen shel Ovdei Kochavim
2. ... reject this proof however, concluding that 'Sheloshah Yamim' might
even be inclusive - only the Tana refers to the entire festival as if it was
(c) And had he meant merely to preclude three days after the festival, then
he ought to have said - 'Eidehen shel Ovdei Kochavim Sheloshah Yamim
(a) We ask whether the Isur is perhaps based on 'Harvachah' - which means
that by doing business with the Nochri, one causes him to gain, in which
case, he will thank his god, and one will have transgressed "ve'Shem Elohim
Acherim ... Lo Yishama al Picha".
(b) Alternatively, the Isur would be - that of "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten
(c) The ramifications of the She'eilah are - there where the Nochri has
another animal, say, in which case "Lifnei Iver" would not apply, though "Lo
(a) The Beraisa - prohibits handing a Nazir a glass of wine or a piece of
Eiver min ha'Chai to a Nochri, because of "Lifnei Iver".
(b) This appears to clash with what we just said - inasmuch the Isur seems
to apply, even though the Nazir or the Nochri are quite capable of taking
the Isur themselves, whereas we just said that "Lifnei Iver" is confined to
where the sinner would not have the means to sin if not for his current
(c) We reconcile the two statements - by confining the Beraisa to a case
where the wine or the Eiver min ha'Chai are on the other side of the river,
and they could not obtain it without the aid of the person who is now
handing it to them.
(d) The Lashon of the Beraisa bears this out - because 'Lo Yoshit' implies
that he is handing it over some sort of barrier, such as a river.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan forbids anyone who did do business with a Nochri before
the festival to derive any benefit from the proceeds - Resh Lakish permits
(b) Resh Lakish reconciles his opinion with the Beraisa 'Eidehen shel Ovdei
Kochavim, Nasa ve'Nasan Asur' - by confining it to the actual day of the
(c) In the second Lashon, Rebbi Yochanan counters Resh Lakish's inference
'Eidehen In, Lifnei Eidehen, Lo' - by incorporating the days before the
festival in 'Eidehen'.
(a) The Beraisa qualifies the prohibition of 'Lifnei Eidehen', restricting
them to objects that will last until the festival - but precluding objects
that will not, such as vegetables - because the Nochri is unlikely to go and
thank his god, once the article is no longer in existence.
(b) The Tana rules that someone who transgressed the prohibition, and did
business with a Nochri within three days of the festival - is nonetheless
permitted to benefit from the transaction (like Resh Lakish).
(c) Rav Z'vid quoting a Beraisa by Rebbi Oshaya forbids the purchase of
objects that will not last until the festival, from a Nochri - because the
Nochri is even more pleased to have managed to sell goods that will not
(a) A Dinra Keysarna'ah is - a Dinar coin that the king authorized, after
disqualifying the previous one.
(b) When a Miyn sent Rebbi Yehudah Nesi'ah such a coin on the day of his
festival, the latter was in a quandary as whether he should not perhaps
accept it (despite the prohibition) - because of Eivah (friction that could
lead to trouble [such as pogroms]).
(c) Initially, he declined to accept the advice of Resh Lakish to throw it
into a deep pit in the Miyn's presence - because, he maintained, that would
cause even more friction.
(d) What Resh Lakish really meant was - that he should drop the Dinar into a
deep pit in a way that would lead the Miyn to believe that he done it
'inadvertently', thereby dispensing with the problem of Eivah.
(a) Our Mishnah includes borrowing from a Nochri in the prohibition (even
though he appears to gain nothing), because, says Abaye - Chazal decreed
borrowing on account of lending.
Having taught us the prohibition of ...
(b) According to Rava, however, the prohibition of borrowing is as intrinsic
as that of lending - since the Nochri is pleased that a Yisrael needs him.
(c) In similar vein, Abaye explains the prohibition of claiming payment of a
loan from a Nochri as a decree on account of lending him money. According to
Rava however - the Isur there is intrinsic too, because once the Nochri has
paid, he is happy to have been relieved of the burden of repaying the loan,
and it is for this that he will go and thank his god.
1. ... doing business with a Nochri (where his property is replenished), the
Tana nevertheless needs to add that of borrowing vessels from him - since
there, his possessions are temporarily depleted.
2. ... borrowing vessels from him (where he is honored that the Yisrael
needs his property, and he knows that he will get it back intact), the Tana
finds it necessary to add that of borrowing money - from which he gains
nothing (in fact he sustains a temporary loss).
3. ... borrowing money from him (where at least he knows that he will get it
back), the Tana nevertheless needs to add that of claiming a debt from him -
even though the loss is permanent.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah permits claiming a debt from a Nochri
within the three days prior to his festival. Initially, we ascribe Rebbi
Yehudah's ruling - to the fact that at the time that the Nochri pays, he is
(b) Rebbi Yehudah in a Beraisa ...
1. ... forbids a woman to smear a lime pack on her face on Yom-Tov if it is
not due to be removed until the middle of Yom-Tov- because the woman suffers
(from her looks) on Yom-Tov.
(c) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak reconciles this ruling with Rebbi Yehudah's
previous ruling, where he did not contend with the fact that the Nochri will
benefit later - by ascribing the leniency here to Yom-Tov, where most of the
Heterim are based on the fact that they will pleasure from the Melachah
later (such as Shechting an animal and preparing a Se'udah).
2. ... permits it if it can be removed on the first day of Yom-Tov - since
she will still derive benefit from it on the same day.
(d) According to Ravina, repayment of a loan is different - because, in his
opinion, Rebbi Yehudah considers the Nochri permanently unhappy at his loss.
(a) Our Mishnah does not go like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah - who restricts
the prohibition in our of claiming a debt from a Nochri to a documented
loan, permitting an oral one, because one is simply saving oneself from a
(b) Rebbi Huna rules - like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah.
(c) Rebbi Aba was sitting in front of Rav Huna when he issued that ruling -
Rav Yosef was sitting behind Rebbi Aba at the time.