POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 3
1) YISRAEL KEPT THEIR MITZVOS, THE "NOCHRIM" DID NOT
(a) Question: What is the source that they did not keep their
2) THE "NOCHRIM" SEEK REWARD
(b) Answer: As Rav Yosef taught.
1. (Rav Yosef): "Ra'ah va'Yater Goyim" - Hash-m saw
that they did not keep the seven Mitzvos they had
accepted, therefore he permitted their Mitzvos to
(c) Nochrim: How do we know that Yisrael kept the entire
2. Objection: If so, they gained from their sin!
3. Answer (Mar brei d'Ravina): He means, Hash-m decreed
that they will no longer get reward for keeping
4. Objection (Beraisa - R. Meir): "Asher Ya'aseh Osam
ha'Adam v'Chai Bahem" - it does not say that Benei
Yisrael will live through the Mitzvos, rather
'ha'Adam', to teach that even A Nochri that engages
in Torah gets reward, just like a Kohen Gadol.
5. Correction: Rather, Hash-m decreed that they will no
longer get reward for them like one who is commanded
and observes, rather like one who is not commanded
i. (R. Chanina): One who is commanded and observes
is greater than one who is not commanded and
(d) Hash-m: I testify that they did.
(e) Nochrim: A father cannot testify for his son, and you
call Yisrael your son -"Beni Bechori Yisrael"!
(f) Hash-m: Heaven and earth will testify for them.
(g) Nochrim: They are partial, they cannot testify - "Im Lo
Brisi Yomam va'Laylah Chukos Shamayim va'Aretz Lo Samti";
1. (Reish Lakish): "Yom ha'Shishi" - Hash-m created the
world on condition that Yisrael will accept His
Torah on the sixth of Sivan; if they will not, the
world will revert to emptiness.
(h) Hash-m: You yourselves will testify that Yisrael kept the
2. Question (Chizkiyah): "Mi'Shamayim Hishmata Din
Eretz Yar'ah v'Shakatah" - if the land was afraid,
why was it quiet?!
3. Answer (Chizkiyah): At first it was afraid; after
Yisrael accepted the Torah, it was quiet.
1. Nimrod will testify that Avraham refused to serve
idolatry, Lavan will testify that Yakov did not
steal, Potifera's wife will testify that Yosef
refused to commit adultery, Nebuchadnetzar will
testify that Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah refused
to bow to the image, Daryavesh will testify that
Daniel did not miss praying, Elifaz ha'Temani,
Bildad ha'Shuchi, Tzufar ha'Na'amasi (Iyov's
friends) will testify that Yisrael kept the entire
Torah - "Yitenu Edeihem v'Yitzdaku".
(a) Nochrim: Give us the Torah now and we will guard it!
(b) Hash-m: Fools! Only one who prepared from before Shabbos
will have what to eat on Shabbos (a parable - only one
who kept Mitzvos in this world will get reward in the
world to come)!
1. Nevertheless, I will give you an easy Mitzvah,
Sukah, go do it.
(c) Immediately, all the Nochrim build Sukos on their roofs;
Hash-m makes the sun beat on them as it does in the heat
of summer; the Nochrim kick the Sukos and leave -
"Nenatkah Es Moseroseimu v'Nashlichah Mimenu Avoseimu".
2. Question: But R. Yehoshua ben Levi taught, "Asher
Anochi Metzavecha ha'Yom" - today (this world) is
for doing Mitzvos, not tomorrow (the world to come);
today (this world) is for doing Mitzvos, not for
receiving their reward.
3. Answer: Hash-m does not deal unfairly with his
4. Question: Why is Sukah called an easy Mitzvah?
5. Answer: One need not spend money for it.
(d) Question: Making the sun beat on them is dealing unjustly
(e) Answer: It is not, Yisrael also suffer thusly, when the
intense heat of summer persists until Sukos.
(f) Question: But Rava taught, one who is in pain is exempt
from the Sukah (Yisrael would also leave in such heat)!
3) HOW HASH-M DIVIDES HIS DAY
(g) Answer: They would leave, but they would not kick the
(h) "Yoshev ba'Shamayim Yischak" - Hash-m will laugh at them.
(i) (R. Yitzchak): That is the only day of Hash-m's laughter.
(j) Others say that R. Yitzchak said this in response to the
(k) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): In the future, Nochrim will convert.
(l) Question: We should not accept them!
1. (Beraisa): We will not accept converts in the
Messianic days (lest their motives are insincere);
(m) Answer: Rather, the Nochrim convert by themselves (which
is invalid), put Tefilin on their heads and arms, and
Tzitzis on their garments, and Mezuzos on their doors;
2. Similarly, we did not accept converts in the days of
David and Shlomo.
1. When they see the armies of Gog and Magog, the
converts (text of the Rashash) ask them why they
(n) "Yoshev ba'Shamayim Yischak (Hash-m will laugh at them)".
2. Gog and Magog: "(We gathered to fight) Al Hash-m
3. The converts cast off their Mitzvos and leave -
"Nenatkah Es Moseroseimu..."
(o) (R. Yitzchak): That is the only day of Hash-m's laughter.
(a) Question (on both versions): But Hash-m laughs every day,
as Rav Yehudah taught!
4) REWARD AND PUNISHMENT FOR LEARNING AND NEGLECTING TORAH
1. (Rav Yehudah): In the first three hours of the
day(time), Hash-m engages in Torah;
(b) Answer #1 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): He regularly laughs
*with* His creations, he does not laugh at His creations
except for that day.
2. The next three He judges the world;
i. When He sees that the world is fitting to be
destroyed, He goes from the throne of judgment
the throne of mercy.
3. The next three hours He feeds the entire world, from
the biggest animals to the smallest (lice eggs);
4. The last three hours He laughs with Livyasan (a
giant fish that Tzadikim will enjoy in the future) -
"Livyasan Zeh Yatzarta Lesachek Bo".
(c) Answer #2 (Rav Acha): He does not laugh after the Mikdash
(d) Question: How do we know this?
1. Suggestion: "Vayikra Hash-m...ba'Yom Hahu li'Vchi
(e) Answer #1: "Im Eshkachech Yerushalayim...Im Lo
2. Rejection: Perhaps He only declared the day of the
Churban for crying!
(f) Rejection: Perhaps He does not forget, but He does laugh!
(g) Answer #2: "Hechesheisi me'Olam Acharish Esapak..."
(h) Question: (According to Rav Acha, Hash-m does not laugh
after the Churban;) what does He do during the last three
(i) Answer: He teaches children that died - "Yoreh
(j) Question: Who teaches them the first three quarters of
(k) Answer #1: Metatron (the angel appointed over the world)
(l) Answer #2: Until then, Hash-m teaches them in addition to
engaging in Torah, judging or feeding the world.
(m) Question: What does Hash-m do at night?
(n) Answer #1: The same things He does by day.
(o) Answer #2: He rides on a fast Cheruv (angel) and flies
through 18,000 worlds - "Rechev Elokim Ribosayim Alfei
1. We read this as 'She'Einen' (2000 of the 20,000 are
(p) Answer #3: He listens to the Chayos (angels) singing -
"Uva'Laylah Shiro Imi".
(a) (R. Levi): Anyone who stops learning to speak idle words,
he is (force-)fed burning coals - "Ha'Kotefim Malu'ach
Alei Si'ach v'Shoresh Resamim Lachmam".
(b) Version #1 (Reish Lakish): Anyone who engages in Torah at
night, Hash-m gives him grace during the day - "Yomam
Yetzaveh Hash-m Chasdo Uva'Laylah Shiro Imi";
1. Hash-m commands His Chesed upon him by day,
*because* he learned at night.
(c) Version #2 (Reish Lakish): Anyone who engages in Torah in
this world, which resembles night, Hash-m gives him grace
in the world to come which resembles day - "Yomam
Yetzaveh Hash-m Chasdo...".
(d) Question (Rav Yehudah): "Va'Ta'aseh Adam ki'Dgei ha'Yam"
- how are fish a parable for people?
(e) Answer #1: Just as fish die immediately if they come upon
dry land, also people die immediately if they refrain
from Torah and Mitzvos.
(f) Answer #2: Just as fish die if the sun beats upon them,
1. Some say, this refers to this world, as R. Chanina
i. (R. Chanina): All sicknesses are decreed by
Heaven, except for chills and fevers (which are
due to a person's negligence).
2. Some say, it refers to the world to come, as Reish
i. (Reish Lakish): Gehinom is not a separate
place, rather, Hash-m will let the sun beat
down heavily; the wicked are judged (punished)
through this, Tzadikim are cured through this.