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1a) [line 1] LIFNEI EIDEIHEN - before their festivals of idol worship
b) [line 2] EIDEIHEN - (lit. their destruction) their festivals of idol worship
2) [line 3] LASEIS V'LASES IMAHEM - to do business with them
4a) [line 4] L'HALVOSAN - to lend them money (Halva'ah (a loan) is different
from Hash'alah (lending an item) since the borrower need not return the
coins that he borrowed)
5a) [line 4] L'FOR'AN - to pay them back
6) [line 6] MEITZER HU LO - it causes him anguish
11) [line 12] TAVRA ADIF - [referring to] their destruction is preferable
13) [line 18] "YOTZREI FESEL KULAM TOHU, VA'CHAMUDEIHEM BAL YO'ILU; V'EDEIHEM HEMAH, [BAL YIR'U U'VAL YED'U, L'MA'AN YEVOSHU.]" - "All who make a graven image are nothingness, and the things in which they delight do not help them; they (the idols) bear witness against them (the idol worshippers) [for they do not see, nor know; so that they should be ashamed.]" (Yeshayah 44:9)
14) [line 20] B'CHEIKO - next to His heart (kiv'Yachol)
17) [line 1] SOFREHA - its wise men (RASHI)
19) [line 6] MISHUM D'CHASHIVA - because it is important
21) [line 8] ROMI CHAYEVES - Rome, the wicked
23) [line 12] "... LA'ASOS MISHPAT AVDO U'MISHPAT AMO YISRAEL [DEVAR YOM B'YOMO.]" - "[And let these, my words, with which I have made supplication before HaSh-m, be near to HaSh-m, our G-d, day and night,] that he maintain the cause of his servant, and the cause of his people Yisrael [at all times, as each day may require.]" (Melachim I 8:59) - The "servant" mentioned in this verse is Shlomo ha'Melech (who is also the speaker), indicating that the king comes before the people.
24) [line 13] LAV ORACH AR'A L'MEISAV MALKA ME'AVRAI - it is not Derech Eretz (proper conduct) for the king to sit outside
25) [line 15] MEKAMEI D'LEIFUSH CHARON AF - before the anger of HaSh-m increases (if he judges the people first, His anger (kiva'Yachol) will be kindled against them for their innumerable sins and the king will bear the brunt of the punishment when he is judged
26a) [line 17] SHEVAKIM - open-air markets
*27*) [line 18] V'CHULAM LO ASINU ELA BISHVIL YISRAEL KEDEI SHE'YIS'ASKU
BA'TORAH - since this Gemara describes the Romans (and Persians, etc.) at
the time of the Final Judgement in the Olam ha'Emes, they realize that
everything that they did was for the purpose of enabling Benei Yisrael to
learn Torah (CHIDUSHEI HA'GRIZ AL HA'TORAH, citing RAV CHAYIM MI'BRISK)
28) [line 23] L'ADEN BAHEN ATZMECHEM - [in which] to refresh yourselves; to improve your complexions
29) [line 28] YATZ'U B'FACHEI NEFESH - they went out devastated, dejected
31) [line 32] MESURBALIN BASAR K'DOV - cloaked with flesh like a bear
34) [line 43] MAI SHENA HANEI D'CHASHIVEI, U'MAI SHENA HANEI D'LO CHASHIVEI LEHU? - Why were these [kingdoms who subjugated Yirael] mentioned (i.e. Rome and Persia) and why were those [kingdoms who subjugated Yirael] not mentioned (i.e. Babylon and Greece)?
35) [line 44] MASHCHEI B'MALCHUSAIHU AD D'ASI MESHICHA - their kingdoms will last until the coming of Mashi'ach
36) [line 46] "VA'YOMAR, HASH-M MI'SINAI BA V'ZARACH MI'SE'IR LAMO, [HOFI'A ME'HAR PARAN V'ASA ME'RIVEVOS KODESH; MI'YEMINO ESH DAS LAMO.]" - "And he (Moshe) said, HaSh-m came from Sinai and radiated from Se'ir to them (to the descendants of Esav). [He revealed Himself from the Mountain of Paran (to the descendants of Yishmael) and then approached with some of the myriad Angels of the Holy Sanctum; from His right hand He presented the fiery Torah to them.]" (Devarim 33:2) - HaSh-m offered the Torah to all of the nations before he offered it to Benei Yisrael.
37a) [line 46] "ELOKA MI'TEIMAN YAVO..." - "HaSh-m comes from Teiman, [and
the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, and the
earth was full of his praise.]" (Chabakuk 3:3)
38) [line 47] HECHEZIRAH - he circulated it (the Torah); he brought it to [the nations of the world]
39a) [line 47] UMAH - kingdom b) [line 48] LASHON - people who speak the same language
40) [line 49] V'AL DA TEVARTEHON, AMAI LO KIBALNUHA?! - But their ruin is due to this - why did they not accept it?!
41) [line 50] KELUM KAFISA ALEINU HAR K'GIGIS? - Did you ever hold over us a mountain like an upturned barrel (O.F. cuve) [as you did for Benei Yisrael]?
42) [line 51] "... VA'YISYATZVU B'SACHTIS HA'HAR." - "... and they stood at the foot of the mountain." (Shemos 19:17) - Based upon the word "b'Sachtis," which has the connotation of "underneath," the Gemara renders this verse as, "... and they stood *underneath* the mountain."
43a) [line 53] HA'RISHONOS YASHMI'UNU - let us hear about the prior ones
(i.e. the Mitzvos that were commanded before the Torah was given)
c) [line 54] SHEVA MITZVOS (SHEVA MITZVOS BENEI NOACH)
1. Avodah Zarah, not to worship idols.(c) All of these are general commandments with many details. Transgressing any one of them is considered such a breach in the natural order that the offender incurs the death penalty. Chazal termed this as, "Ben Noach - Azharaso Zo Hi Misaso" - "Any act prohibited to a Ben Noach invokes the death sentence" (RAMBAM Hilchos Melachim 9:14).
(d) Besides these seven major Mitzvos, Chazal received a tradition that there are other Mitzvos and prohibitions that are incumbent upon Benei Noach. The Beraisa (see Sanhedrin 56b) notes certain Tana'im who rule that other prohibitions are incumbent upon Benei Noach. These prohibitions are:
1. Dam Min ha'Chai, not to eat blood that is taken from an animal when it is alive.(e) The Amora'im add two more prohibitions:
1. Keeping Shabbos, that is, choosing a day of the week on which to refrain from work (Sanhedrin 58b).(f) The Rambam (ibid. 8:11) writes that all Benei Noach who accept upon themselves the Seven Mitzvos and are careful to keep them are termed "Chasidei Umos ha'Olam" ("the Pious Ones of the Nations") and they merit a share in the World to Come. However, they must keep these Mitzvos specifically because HaSh-m commanded them in the Torah through Moshe Rabeinu. If they keep and perform these Mitzvos as logical guidelines for the survival of the world, they are not termed "Chasidei Umos ha'Olam." When a Ben Noach fulfills a Mitzvah of the Torah that is not prohibited to him, he receives the reward of an "Eino Metzuveh v'Oseh" - "one who performs a Mitzvah in which he was not commanded." This reward is less than the reward of one who performs Mitzvos in which he was commanded (Gemara Bava Kama 38a, Kidushin 31a).
44) [line 55] "AMAD VA'YEMODED ERETZ, RA'AH VA'YATER GOYIM, [VA'YISPOTZETZU HAREREI-AD, SHACHU GIV'OS OLAM; HALICHOS OLAM LO.]" - "He stood, and shook the earth; He beheld, and caused the nations to tremble; [and the everlasting mountains are dashed in pieces, the everlasting hills bow; His ways are as of old.]" (Chabakuk 3:6) - The Gemara renders the words "va'Yater Goyim" as "and He rescinded [the prohibitions previously commanded to] the nations."
45) [last line] ISGUREI ISGUR?! - Do they profit?!